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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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A 1912 map of the Indian Ocean in Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen by Max Groll. Note the light-colored (shallower) area between Australia and Antarctica, an early indication of the continuity of the oceanic ridge system in the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans. Amazingly, a feature as large as Ninety East Ridge had yet to be discovered. Plate II, Indian Ocean.
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A 1912 map of the Pacific Ocean in Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen by Max Groll. Note the light-colored (shallower) area in the vicinity of what is today called the East Pacific Rise, and early indication of the continuity of the oceanic ridge system. Plate III, Pacific Ocean.
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Sir John Murray's map of the world ocean published in 1912. Murray stuck with his nomenclature and interpretation of features until his death. The German geographers were definitely ahead of the world in their understanding of the nature of the seafloor and our planet until the Second World War.
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Sir John Murray's continuation of the naming of features for researchers even though they never worked in a given area. Supan had understood the nature of the Aleutian Trench and named it accordingly in 1899. Murray refused to acknowledge either the interpretation or the naming system proposed by Supan which has since been adopted by the world with minor modifications.
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Gerhard Schott's 1912 map of the Arctic Basin and North Atlantic showing numerous distinct basins and, although first soundings on Reykjanes Ridge was probably on H.M.S. BULLDOG in 1860, this is among the first maps to show it as a named feature. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott, 1912. P. 120.
6955 thumbnail picture
An early profile of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P.88.
6956 thumbnail picture
A map of the rugged topography around the Azores Islands produced by Gerhard Schott. This map gives an indication of the level of detail achievable with piano-wire sounding technology. Map VII, p. 112, Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott 1912. Library Call No. GC481.S4 1.Aufl. (1912).
6957 thumbnail picture
An inset map of an area off the coast of Brazil, South America, showing numerous banks and seamounts. Probably most of these features were discovered by British Cable Ship operations. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P.103.
6958 thumbnail picture
An inset map of the Congo Canyon in: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans, by Gerhard Schott, 1912. P. 102.
6959 thumbnail picture
A cross-sectional view of Hudson Canyon by Gerhard Schott in 1912. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P. 109.
6960 thumbnail picture
A map of the Atlantic Ocean off NW Africa, the same area covered by Edward Stallibrass in map00031, with tables showing the least depth and extent of the banks in square kilometers. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P.111.
6961 thumbnail picture
A map of the Atlantic Ocean off NW Africa, the same area covered by Edward Stallibrass in map00031. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott, 1912. P. 111.
6962 thumbnail picture
A profile view of Seine Bank in: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott, 1912. It shows a flat-topped seamount, what we would today call a guyot. In fact, many of the seamounts discovered prior to the invention of the echo sounder were flat-topped seamounts having a wide surface area on the top increasing the probability of discovery by widely spaced piano-wire soundings.
6963 thumbnail picture
This map used Sir John Murray's bathymetric map as the base map for a map of world vulcanism. Published in 1914 under the title "Oro-Bathygraphical Chart of the World." This was probably one of the last maps published using Sir John Murray's nomenclature and interpretation of the bathymetry of the seafloor.
6964 thumbnail picture
The last of the Murray-Supan controversy over nomenclature as shown on this 1914 map titled Oro-Bathygraphical Chart of the World. Sir John Murray died in 1914 as the result of an automobile accident.
6965 thumbnail picture
A 1925 map of the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean showing discoveries made from 1911 to 1915 by Russian surveyors and explorers. This map was published as "The Russian Hydrographical Expedition to the Arctic" in The Geographical Review, Vol. XV, No. 3, 1925.
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Map showing the route and profile of soundings obtained by the USS STEWART in 1922. The STEWART crossed the Atlantic and ran a complete line of acoustic soundings and obtained over 900 measurements of depth from the East Coast of the United States to the Straits of Gibraltar. Although not the first line of acoustic soundings, it ushered in the use of acoustics in ocean exploration.
6967 thumbnail picture
The Atlantic Ocean in "Geographic das Atlantischen Ozeans", 1925, published by Gerhard Schott on the eve of the famous German METEOR Expedition in 1925. There are few, if any, substantive changes between this map and Schott's 1912 map. Most of the large features of the ocean floor had been discovered by the early 1900's. However, ocean scientists were on the edge of a new era of discovery.
6968 thumbnail picture
The North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean in: "Geographic das Atlantischen Ozeans", 1925, published by Gerhard Schott. This was in the second edition of his work on Oceanography and basically showed that little additional knowledge of this area had been obtained since 1912. See image map00062.
6969 thumbnail picture
This 3-dimensional view of the equatorial Atlantic seafloor was produced following the German METEOR Expedition of 1925-1927. Unfortunately it was destroyed during the Second World War but the image survives. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge snakes down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean between Brazil on the left and Africa on the right.
6970 thumbnail picture
State of knowledge of the Southern Ocean in 1929 as compiled by the American Geographical Society.
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"Echometre" record obtained by the French liner S.S. De Grasse when crossing over the head of a canyon on Georges Bank. Such records reinforced the view that vessels could navigate by using bathymetry. Accordingly, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey embarked on a project to map the continental slopes and shelves to help guide mariners into United States ports.
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This submarine valley was discovered by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey during survey operations using acoustic sounding systems coupled with the newly developed Radio Acoustic Ranging (RAR) navigation system allowing relatively accurate navigation without having to rely on either visual astronomic positioning or visual ties to objects on land.
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These canyons were discovered by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey on the continental slope south of Georges Bank. They were contoured by Francis Shepard, the Father of Submarine Geology, who began his career as a marine geologist working cooperatively with the USC&GS.
6974 thumbnail picture
Map of the Atlantic Ocean by Theodore Stocks following the completion of the German METEOR Expedition.
6975 thumbnail picture
"Gravimetrical-Geological Map of the East Indian Archipelago" by Vening Meinesz, et al. In: Gravity Expeditions at Sea 1923-1932. 1935 Vol II. Plate IV. This map is possibly the first to hint at the correlation between gravity and bathymetry as the Java Trench is mirrored by the red and pink negative gravity anomaly south of the island of Java.
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Map of the Atlantic Ocean published following the METEOR Expedition by Theodor Stocks and George Wust in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935.
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Title page to "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935. By Theodor Stocks and George Wust. This work was an analysis of the bathymetry of the METEOR cruise showing the most detailed morphological information of the seafloor ever attained up to that time. It clearly showed the nature of the Mid- Atlantic Ridge and led eventually to the discovery of the median valley.
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The echo-sounding profiles of the South Atlantic Ocean as correlated along longitude 30W. These profiles were generated following the METEOR Expedition by Theodor Stocks and George Wust and published in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, Table I.
6979 thumbnail picture
A series of stacked profiles which possibly were used in the building of the seafloor model shown in image map00077. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
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The center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge showing where soundings had been made. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
6981 thumbnail picture
Some of the large features noted on the Stocks and Wust map in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
6982 thumbnail picture
An attempt to understand the morphology of the Romanche Deep area, an area known today to be the location of a major fracture zone offsetting the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
6983 thumbnail picture
A longitudinal diagram of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge showing its high points from 60 N latitude to approximately 60S latitude. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935 by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
6984 thumbnail picture
Two alternate interpretations of what is now termed the "tectonic fabric" of the seafloor in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The lower map is in accordance with modern mapping and interpretation and shows hills and ridges running parallel to the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In: Die Tiefenverhaltnis se des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935 by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
6985 thumbnail picture
A map showing the abyssal hills to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 16S. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935 by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
6986 thumbnail picture
A map of the world ocean between about 50N and 10S in: In: Gravity Expeditions at Sea 1923-1932. 1935. Vol II, Plate I, by Vening Meinesz, et al. Map shows location of gravity profiles in the world ocean up to that time.
6987 thumbnail picture
1935 map of the Indian and Pacific Oceans by Gerhard Schott. In: :Geographie des Indischen und Stillen Ozeans," 1935. Table IV in back pocket. The East Pacific Rise, South Pacific Swell, Carlsberg Ridge, the Pacific trenches, but still no Ninety East Ridge.
6988 thumbnail picture
"Distribution of Earthquakes" as mapped by Commander Nicholas Heck of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and published in the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union for 1936 (P. 93) clearly showing the seismicity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and some other segments of the world rift system.
6989 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the Indian Ocean.
6990 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the North Pacific Ocean.
6991 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the South Atlantic Ocean.
6992 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the South Pacific Ocean.
6993 thumbnail picture
Salt domes discovered by Coast and Geodetic Survey, described and interpreted by Francis Shepard. GSA Bulletin; September 1937; v. 48; no. 9; p. 1349-1361
6994 thumbnail picture
Mississippi Canyon discovered by Coast and Geodetic Survey, described and interpreted by Francis Shepard. GSA Bulletin; September 1937; v. 48; no. 9; p. 1349-1361
6995 thumbnail picture
1937 tectonic map including offshore bathymetry of Portugal showing numerous offshore canyons. Part of Bruce Heezen collection at NOAA Central Library.
6996 thumbnail picture
A single salt dome off Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River discovered by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, contoured by Francis Shepard. GSA Bulletin; September 1937; v. 48; no. 9; p. 1349-1361.
6997 thumbnail picture
1938 3-D model of the North Pacific Ocean based on soundings taken by the USS RAMAPO during numerous crossings of the North Pacific Ocean. This model was produced by the Navy Hydrographic Office.
6998 thumbnail picture
Francis Shepard's diagram showing worldwide distribution of known submarine canyons. The predominance of known canyons off the United States and the Philippines is the result of work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and its development of the radio-acoustic ranging navigation system prior to WW II. Published in Geographical Review, July, 1938.
6999 thumbnail picture
Altair Seamount as surveyed by the German Research vessel ALTAIR. This, and Davidson Seamount on the West Coast of the United States, by the Coast and Geodetic Survey were among the first detailed studies of seamounts by acoustic soundings. Contoured by Albert Defant 1939. Published in International Hydrographic Review.

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April 30, 2013