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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 10. Cylinder for use with Hensen cylindrical surface-towed net at about the same time as the cone mentioned previously. This net, for qualitative collecting
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Figure 11. Meter for use with Buchet plankton net, devised by Gaston Buchet in 1892. Left: front view. Right: side view. This instrument was designed to capture pelagic animals while being towed at a relatively high rate of speed. It was tested off Iceland in 1892 and also used in a number of expeditions of Prince Albert I of Monaco.
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Figure 12. Borgert net devised by Dr. Adolph Borgert of Hamburg in 1893. Having found the Hensen and Buchet nets too heavy, too complicated, and difficult to manage, and too expensive, Dr. Borgert designed this net for collecting plankton at the surface at high speed. This net was first tested from the steamer BARCELONA between Hamburg and the western Mediterranean.
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Figure 13. Richard narrow-ended net. Left: simple model. Right: model with deflector. Invented in 1903 by Doctor Jules Richard, this net combined extreme lightness with ease of making as well as a great facility for use by a ship underway. The prototype of this net was constructed on the PRINCESSE-ALICE II. Prince Albert I used this for thousands of plankton sampling tows from 1903 on.
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Figure 14. Apstein plankton tube. Above: Top view. Below: bottom view. Invented by Carl Apstein who had been studying lake fauna. Apstein collaborated with Hensen to work in the Baltic and North Seas. Apstein perceived quickly that methods of work would have to vary considerably from lake work and made thi s instrument for collecting small plankton under difficult conditions.
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Figure 15. Zacharias ethmophore plankton filter devised by Otto Zacharias in 1907. Top: view of the assembled apparatus. Bottom: internal speed reduction valve. This instrument was devised to collect plankton under adverse meteorolog ical conditions where normal net-towing operations became impossible. This inst rument was first used in a lake, but then in the Mediterranean and Tyrhennian.
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Figure 16. Monti net tube devised by Madame Rina Monti of the University of Sassari in Sardinia. Top: the assembled unit. Middle: the internal net. Bottom: series of diaphrams used in the unit. This net and tube system were meant to improve shortcomings found in various other surface plankton sampling systems and was first tested off the coast of Sardinia in 1911.
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Figure 17. Hyponeuston net for capturing life in the top 5 centimeters of the water column. This net was devised by Yuvenalii P. Zaitsev of the biological station at Odessa and meant to capture plankton from the very top of the water column. The top of the net was actually half out of the water when being towed while the bottom skimmed the surface. First made in 1959.
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Figure 18. Net closure device invented by Baron Jules De Guerne and Paul Dumaig e and first tested in the east Atlantic in 1886 in 31 meters waters depth. Left: closed. Right: open.
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Figure 19. Closing device for Chun and Petersen net first devised by Giuseppe Palumbo, commanding officer of the VETTOR PISANI. In the course of its around the world oceanographic cruise of 1882-1885, the idea to develop a helical clos ing device for a towed plankton net was developed. Prince Albert I of Monaco adapted this idea to a vertical net during the expedition of 1887.
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Figure 20. Horizontal shutter plankton net first invented by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1889. Left: view of the assembled unit. Right: the messenger to trigger operation of the unit. This net would be lowered to a specified depth and then a messenger sent down the line to open it and capture drifting fauna at depth. This was first tested by Prince Albert I off Madeira in 1889.
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Figure 21. Universal sampling apparatus invented by Otto Pettersson in 1904. This instrument measured temperature, the velocity and direction of the current, and also collected plankton. Pettersson first tested this instrument in 1904 in the Skagerrak and Baltic Sea. Left: in descent. Center: deployed. Right: on the ascent.
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Figure 21 (continued.) Detail of the device which connects the end of the net with the wire. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 22. The Thor ring-trawl net used in deep water. Devised by Johannes Schmidt in 1905 and used for carrying out studies on board the THOR. This net was used to capture fish in very deep water. It was first tested in waters between 1040 and 1090 meters depth off SW Ireland. The ring was originally made in one piece but George Hansen designed it in two to allow it to fold up.
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Figure 23. Kofoid net devised by Charles A. Kofoid of the University of Califor nia at Berkeley in 1909. Above: in the functioning position. Lower left: in descent. Lower right: upon ascent. This net sampling system was meant to guarantee the verticality of the cable and sampling at the exact depth desired. It was tested off San Diego in 1909 at 1000 meters depth.
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Figure 24. Clarke-Bumpus plankton gathering device. Invented in 1939 by George L. Clarke of Harvard University and Dean F. Bumpus of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This device was used on the Atlantis. Top: view of the apparatus. Middle: view of the apparatus with net on frame. Lower left: rear view of the device's mouth. Lower right: plankton recovery unit.
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Figure 25. Net WP2 as recommended by working group Number 2 of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research in 1966. Plan of the net on left. Specimen collector on the right. This net was meant to collect zooplankton from the upper 200 meters of the water column. It was first tested by Paul Smith of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in the NE Pacific in 1966.
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Figure 26. Sigsbee gravity driven plankton trap. Devised by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee of the USN on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE in 1880. It was meant to collect live specimens of plankton between precisely specified depths. It was first tested on the Blake between 9 and 45 meters in 1880.
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Figure 27. Frame for Chun and Hensen quantitative net closing mechanism. Left: view of the unit. Above: detail view.
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Figure 28. Biological sampling device of Apstein net circa 1891. The net and system of this device was designed for fresh-water lake studies. This net was derived from the studies of Victor Hensen on quantitative methods of studying the sea. It was first tested in the Stettiner Haff in 1892.
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Figure 29. Marsh net devised by C. Dwight Marsh in 1893. Left: view of the apparatus before closing. Upper right: view of the closed mechanism. Lower right: detail of the closing mechanism. This net was used for plankton sampling in lakes. It was first tested in Green Lake, Wisconsin, U. S. A., in 1893.
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Figure 30. Closing device of the Apstein closing net. Left: open. Right: closed. Devised by Carl Apstein in 1903 and used in the North Sea. This was used for quantitative plankton studies and was first used in the North Sea in 1903.
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Figure 31. Vertical net devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1903 and used on the PRINCESSE-ALICE II in the Bay of Quiberon for quantitative sampling of plankton the same year.
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Figure 32. Plankton bottle devised by James I. Peck of Williams College, Massachusetts, and Nathan R. Harrington of Columbia University, New York, in 1896. It was used to collect plankton, both animal and vegetable, at various depths. It was first used in 1896 at the entrance to Puget Sound, Washington, at 5 levels up to 205 meters depth.
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Figure 33. Kofoid plankton sampling bucket devised by Charles A. Kofoid of the University of California at Berkeley in 1905. It was used on board the vessel LOMA out of San Diego. This bottle was used to acquire a volume of water in which the plankton would be counted for quantitative studies of life in the sea. This instrument closely resembled a Pettersson bottle.
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Figure 34. Brouardel simple bottle for sampling the organic productivity of the sea. Devised by Jean Brouardel of the Oceanographic Institute of Paris and Emile Rinck of the Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Paris in 1956. Left: open. Right: closed. This sampling method followed the type developed by Steeman Nielsen.
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Figure 35. Double automatic sampling bottle of Brouardel devised by Jean Brouardel and Emile Rinck in 1958. This bottle was used to measure organic productivity in the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity of Monaco on board the WINNARETTA-SINGER. Left: open. Right: closed. This bottle was desi gned for in situ measurement of phytoplankton by the Carbon-14 method.
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Figure 36. Double sampling bottle of Brouardel. Left: open. Right: closed. This type of bottle was used in 1959 for measuring organic productivity in the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity of Monaco on board the WINNARETTA-SINGER in the vicinity of Monaco in 1959. This bottle was designed for in situ measurement of phytoplankton by the Carbon-14 method.
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Figure 37. Falconetti and Vaissiere turning net devised by Raymond Vaissiere and Claude Falconetti of the University of Nice in 1972. Top: the equipment. Bottom: in operating position. This net was designed to capture plankton and the larvae of benthic species at a small distance off the bottom. It was able to stay under water for prolonged periods and easy to use.
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Figure 38. Fischer bacterial sampling device invented by Doctor Bernhard Fischer of the University of Kiel in 1894. He described this instrument in the reports of the Plankton-Expedition. It functioned with the aid of a helical screw for closing.
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Figure 39. Portier and Richard microbe sampling bottle invented by Doctor Paul Portier of the Laboratory of Physiology of the Faculty of Sciences, Paris, and Doctor Jules Richard, director of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco in 1902. It was a great improvement over preceding models and gave very pure samples. It was tested between 1000 and 3000 meters depth off the Azores in 1902
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Figure 40. Liebert bacterial sampling apparatus invented by Francois Liebert in 1908 at the "Rijksinstituut voor het onderzoek der zee" and first used off the vessel WODAN in the North Sea. It sampled at depths from the surface to between 20 and 40 meters on this initial test.
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Figure 41. Apstein instrument and graph for determining the depth of horizontal ly towed nets. First noted by Carl Apstein in 1909, this instrument was used for many years to determine the depth of net at various towing speeds and amount of tension on the towing line.
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Figure 42. Top: Richard apparatus for examining live plankton. Bottom: a sample holding tank for studying plankton. Devised by Dr. Jules Richard in 1905 and used aboard the PRINCESSE-ALICE II. It was meant to allow study under ship conditions including rolling and pitching. This instrument was also used in shore laboratories.
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Figure 43. A piston pipette used in determining the amount of plankton in a given volume of water. Used by Victor Hensen in 1887.
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Figure 44. Apstein apparatus used for measuring small amounts of plankton. Carl Apstein conceived this apparatus in 1909 for measuring the total amount of plankton by the displacement of liquid. sample.
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Figure 44 (cont.) A circular sieve for straining plankton from the water used with the Apstein plankton measuring device.
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Figure 45. Jacobsen and Paulsen apparatus for the measurement of plankton in a water sample. Devised by Jacob Peter Jacobsen of the Danish Hydrographic Laboratory and Doctor Ove Paulsen, of the Botanical Museum of the University of Copenhagen, in 1910. This instrument was easier to use and less subject to "operator" error than the preceding model.
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Figure 46. Hirondelle sled trawl devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco for use on l'HIRONDELLE in 1886. This type of trawl was very successful and used over the course of 30 years in the various scientific expeditions of Prince Albert I of Monaco and continued to be used later by small vessels of the Oceanographic Museum. It was first used in 60 meters of water in the Gulf of Gascogne in 1886.
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Figure 47. A large mesh net designed by Prince Albert I of Monaco for use in towing at high speed. This net was constructed in 1896 and used on board the PRINCESSE-ALICE but was not very effective and its use was discontinued. It was tested on the PRINCESSE-ALICE off Monaco in 2148 meters in 1896.
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Figure 48. A sea bottom dredge designed by Jacques Picard in 1961 at the Marseille Marine Station and first used in the Bay of Marseille. This was meant to sample the fauna living in the sediments covering the seafloor. This instrument is similar to a box dredge or deep sea anchor dredge. It was first tested in 1961 in the Bay of Marseille.
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Figure 49. An Ekman bottom sampler for use in zoological sampling operations. This instrument was capable of acquiring a sample from a surface area covering 500 sq cm. This device was designed by Dr. Sven Ekman of Jonkoping, Sweden in 1910. This sampler was spring-loaded and snapped shut to acquire mud and silt. Although tested in a lake, it was equally useful in the sea.
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Figure 50. Petersen scoop bottom sampling device used by the Danish scientist C. G. Johan Petersen for studies of the bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea from 1910 to 1912. Top: the original sampler. Bottom: sampling device in the Oceanographic Museum. Petersen studied the samples to make precise quantitative studies of the fauna in the sedimentary material.
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Figure 51. A Birge-Ekman bottom sampling device. This sampler was described by by the American limnologist Edward Birge in 1921 and used in lacustrine studies . Top: open. Bottom: closed. This instrument was very similar to the Ekman bottom sampler. Only the closing device was different.
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Figure 52. Knudsen bottom sampler designed by Martin Knudsen, a professor at the University of Copenhagen. This machine was meant to improve the sampling ability of the Petersen sampling device in more compact sediment layers. It was tested in the Oresund between Denmark and Sweden off the DANA in 11 meters of water in 1926.
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Illustration 2. Recovery of the triangular fish trap. Drawn by Louis Tinayre and engraved by Duplessis; taken from "The Career of a Navigator", the work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, third edition published in 1914.
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Figure 53. Triangular fish trap used by Prince Albert I of Monaco on his first oceanographic expedition on l'HIRONDELLE in 1886.
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Figure 54. Small cylindrical bow net first devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco about 1888.
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Figure 55. Electric lamp invented by the Austrian Klaus Grein in 1912. This lamp was used on the EIDER in 1912 to attract fish at depths from 0 to 800 meters.
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Figure 56. Regnard phosphorescent tubes designed by the physiologist Paul Regnard to attract certain marine fish to nets and traps used in biological sampling. These tubes were designed about 1888 and used by Prince Albert I of Monaco with his sampling nets. Left: two-ring model. Right center: one-ring model. Bottom: Reflecting plate.

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