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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 24. Cable ship four-tube sounder. This device operates in a manner similar to the previous model, and there are no further details concerning its design or implementation.
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Figure 25. Bachmann penetration tubes. These instruments are not properly sounders, but an accessory for use with the instruments of the time. The bacteriologist Martin Bachman designed these tubes in order to elongate the real sounder tube and penetrate more deeply into the sediment. These tubes achieved deep penetration but little sample material. First used on VALDIVIA in 1898.
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Figure 26. The Leger dredge sounder in the descending position. This sampling device was designed to retain a portion of the captured sample even if a rock held the jaws open after being activated to snap shut. This sounder was tested twenty-two times in 1903 on the PRINCESS ALICE II between depths of 18 and 4560 meters.
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Figure 26 (cont.) The Leger dredge sounder after sampling and in the ascent mode. Note that the weights were retained on the instrument and not jettisoned on the seafloor.
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Figure 27. Ekman sounder, designed by Vagn W. Ekman in 1905. This instrument is similar to one designed by his father Fredrik L. Ekman in 1893 and to Magnaghi's sounder, described in 1891.
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Figure 28. Pasquion sounder invented by the Frenchman August Pasquion. This device was never featured in a publication; however, it was patented on June 26, 1906, by the National Office of Industrial Property. Its first ocean tests took place in 1905 and it was used by the French cable survey ships for at least the next fifteen years.
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Figure 29. Gilson sounder, described in 1906 by Gustave Gilson of the University of Louvain. He described a perfected scoop sounder which was similar to the Stellwagen sounder but contained a number of improvements for assuring a larger quantity of sediment obtained than with the earlier instrument. It was first tested in 1899 near Ostende off the coast of Belgium.
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Figure 29 (cont.) Gilson sounder with detail of the cover plate.
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Figure 30. Aime dredges -- small model on left, large model on right. These dredges were designed by Georges Aime, Professor of Physics at the College of Alger, in 1840 for the study of small quantities of sediment. They were not used as part of a depth-measuring system.
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Figure 31. Thoulet round dredge, designed by Julien Thoulet, professor at the University of Nancy, about 1897. Although tested aboard the Princess Alice in about 1901, it was not until 1909 that Thoulet tested his dredge in small lakes. That same year they were used in the Gulf of Gascogne on the PRINCESS ALICE II in depths up to 4600 meters.
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Figure 32 (left). Phleger corer devised by Fred B. Phleger of Scripps about 1951 for the study of the Foraminifera in deep water bottom samples. Phleger , previously of Amherst and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, used a similar device on the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition. The instrument on the right is attributed to Kullenberg (Figure 34).
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Figure 34. Brouardel corer invented by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet for measuring dissolved oxygen in ocean water at the seafloor. This instrument was devised and constructed by Jean Comelli at the instrument shop of the Oceanograp hic Museum at Monaco. It was tested on the EIDER off Monaco in 1953, at depths between 150 and 580 meters for the first model.
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Figure 35. Brouardel surface sampler, improvement of previous instrument, was designed by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet and constructed by Jean Comelli. This instrument was inspired by Bernard M. Jenkins' Surface Mud Sampler, created for the limnological studies of Clifford H. Mortimer. It was used to sample bottom water and sediment simultaneously. It was first tested off the EIDER in 1954.
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Figure 36. Ericsson pneumatic sounder, invented in 1835 by John Ericsson of USS MONITOR fame. This was among the first instruments to use the principle of pressure needed to compress air a given amount to derive the depth of water.
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Figure 37. Bucknill-Casella manometric sounder, invented by Lieutenant John T. Bucknill of the Royal Engineers of the Royal Navy in 1870 to mitigate problems with existing sounding systems. This sounder was based on Bourdon's tube, whose curvature varied as a function of the pressure difference between the interior and the fluid in which it was immersed. Louis P. Casella made the final product.
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Figure 38. Stahlberger rheobathometer, invented in 1873 by Emil Stahlberger to measure currents, measure depth, and collect deep water samples. It was first used on board the Austrian corvette MINERVA in 1873 in the Gulf of Fiume. The original device was made by Mathias Skull of Fiume, Austria. Several versions of this instrument were tested at various depths.
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Figure 39. Massey sounder, a propeller driven sounding device first developed in 1802 by Edward Massey. Many improvements were made to this device through the Nineteenth Century. The instrument in the image was created by Thomas Walke r in 1874. It consists of a propeller driven registering device which is fixed to a sounding line and weighted by ballast.
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Figure 40. Fol bathometer, designed by Hermann Fol who was a collaborator with Prince Albert I of Monaco. This instrument used the same principle as the Erics son sounder. Fol replaced water with mercury in order to determine the depth attained as a function of the quantity of liquid displaced by the pressure. Details concerning tests and effectiveness of this device are unknown.
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Figure 41. Thomson pneumatic sounder, devised by Sir William Thomson, was an extremely simple device designed for use with his sounding machine on a steel line. Although based on the action of pressure on gas or liquids, it also used the original concept of using a chemical means to note the depth attained.
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Figure 42. Hopfgartner and Arzberger sounder, devised by Lieutenant Franz von Hopfgartner of the Austrian Merchant Marine and Moriz Arzberger, a civil enginee r, this apparatus used the same principle as aneroid barometers which utilized the pressure difference between a wall, isolated or not, and the exterior medium . It was tested in 1876 in the Gulf of Trieste in depths up to 17 meters.
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Figure 43. Bergius pneumatic sounder. No documentation could be found for the design, construction, or testing of this instrument. It is probable that this instrument was created in the early Twentieth Century by Friedrich Bergius, a 1931 Nobel Prize winner, for study of high pressure chemical reactions.
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Figure 44. Bamberg pneumatic bathometer, constructed by Carl Bamberg. This instrument is in fact an accessory to a Bamberg sounder, which was similar to the Thomson sounder. It used the pressure of water to push a certain quantity of water into a tube and subsequently measuring it in order to determine the depth that the tube had attained.
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Figure 45. Rung bathometer, designed by Captain George Rung of the Danish Meteorological Institute. It was a new type of pneumatic sounding device based on the principle advanced by the physician Kristian Prytz, also a Dane. It was considered an advancement on the Thompson tube. Depending on modifications, it could be used from 0 to 200 meters, or from two to three times deeper.
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Figure 45 (cont.) Detail of mechanism of Rung bathometer.
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Figure 46. Shaeffer and Budenberg recording manometer, designed and built by the firm of Schaeffer and Budenberg. This was based on an instrument designed for use by a German expedition to Antarctica. This device was able to work to 1200 meters and was first tested by Doctor Brennecke on the German ship PLANET in the Indian Ocean in 1906.
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Figure 46 (cont.) Shaeffer and Budenberg recording manometer, mechanism above, recording graph below. The instrument is within an enclosed case which is acted upon by water pressure. An amplification mechanism transmits the displacement to a pen which records the corresponding depth on a gridded sheet.
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Figure 47. Sigsbee sounding machine, designed by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN. Sigsbee's sounding machine was constructed on the basis of the Thomson wireline sounding machine. The Sigsbee apparatus represents the first real industrial construction of such a device. It was the prototype for the majority of wireline machines subsequently invented and used.
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Figure 47 (cont.) Sigsbee sounding machine, designed by Lietenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN. Sigsbee designed this machine while in command of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE while operating in the Gulf of Mexico in 1874 and first used on the BLAKE in 1875.
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Figure 48. Lucas sounding machine, invented by Francis Lucas. Lucas began his career laying submarine cable in 1856. He subsequently became chief engineer at the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. He invented this lightweig t wire-sounding machine in 1878 and first used on the ALERT the same year. This type of machine was used by British hydrographic ships after 1887.
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Figure 49. Bamberg sounding machine, devised by Carl Bamberg as a modification of the Thomson piano-wire sounding machine. Thomson placed his model on the CHALLENGER but it was never successfully used there. It was the American vessel s TUSCARORA and BLAKE that ultimately proved the usefulness of wireline sounding .
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Figure 49 (cont.) Bamberg sounding machine, detail of accessory cupboard.
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Figure 49 (end). Bamberg sounding machine with accessory cupboard.
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Figure 50. Belloc sounding machine, invented by Emile Belloc. This machine was designed for raising water bottles and thermometers for studying the lakes of Pyrenee Mountains. It was subsequently used in a more robust form by Andre Delebecque on Lake Leman in 1891 and by Prince Albert I of Monaco off his ship in 1894.
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Figure 51. HIRONDELLE II sounding machine used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. This machine represented the evolution of a number of sounding machines used by Prince Albert I since first having a wireline machine installed on the HIRONDEL LE. The first machine was wound back in by hand, but subsequent models had stea m engines for winding in. The engineer Jules Le Blanc built these machines.
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Figure 51 (cont.) The HIRONDELLE II sounding machine used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. During the evolution of this machine, two important changes were made on the PRINCESS ALICE II which were used on this machine. The power was provide d by an electric motor, and the cable passed first through a winch before being wound on the reel. This machine kept the winch but returned to steam power.
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Figure 52. Thoulet sounder devised by Professor Julien Thoulet of the University of Nancy in 1908. This was a modification of the Belloc sounder that Professor Thoulet wished to make more portable and to have a lower cost. No information is available concerning the test and use of this machine.
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Figure 53. Berget sounding machine, designed by Professor Alphonse Berget of the Oceanographic Institute of Paris. Prince Albert I of Monaco presented this type of machine to the French Academy of Sciences in 1911. The machine was designed for use in depths from 0 to 2500 meters. This machine was unique for its compact size and strength.
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Figure 54. Aime's sounder release device, devised by Professor Georges Aime, professor of Physics, at the College of Alger. In 1841 Aime tested this device in the Mediterranean in the vicinity of Alger. It could be used for water sampling as well as sounding and was better known for the former use.
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Figure 55. Burt's nipper, invented by Peter Burt, a British ship builder, in 1818. It was used to keep the sounding line vertical in spite of the motion of the ship. It was used by the British Admiralty along with a device of the same type designed by Massey.
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Figure 56. Pecoul logging sounder, invented in 1849 by Master Mariner Adolphe Pecoul of Marseille. This device was used to measure measure depths while a vessel was underway or to be used as a speed logging device. It was tested in 1850. In spite of favorable reports from numerous ship captain, it was rejected by the Ministry of the Marine and Colonies.
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Figure 57. Puhler sounder, described by Christian Puhler in 1563, repeated an idea first put forth by Cardinal Nicholas Pusanus a century earlier. The principle, was to attach a float to a weight making it heavier than water. Upon striking bottom, the float would detach. Depth would be derived from round- trip travel time. It is unknown if this device was ever field tested.
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Figure 58. Albert sounder. The idea of Cardinal Cusanus, mentioned in the previous figure, was re-examined by the Italian architect Leo Battista Alberti and subsequentlydescribed by Giuseppe Biancani in 1635. The design was even simpler than Puhler's device. A simple rule of three was devised to derive the depth from the travel time to the bottom and return of the float.
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Figure 59. Hooke sounder devised by Robert Hooke, curator of experiments of the British Royal Society, also took up Cardinal Cusanus's idea. Like the preceding similar devices, the depth measured was obtained by comparison with the time required for the float to ascend from a known depth. This instrument was designed in 1663 and tested in 5 to 6 meters water depth.
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Figure 60. Joe Soundings sounder. This device was described in nautical magazine in 1832 by an individual with the pen name "Joe Soundings." It used a counter incremented by a propeller to measure the distance to the bottom. It is similar to the Massey sounder and Massey is sometimes cited as the inventor. There is no information concerning testing or use of this instrument.
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Figure 61. Electrosounder, used by the Italian Navy in 1954, employed a small explosive device which exploded on impact with the bottom and the sound subsequently was heard at a hydrophone on a ship. The use of explosives for depth finding was first suggested by a French engineer, Urbain Dortet de Tessan about 1850.
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Figure 62. Leger bathometer designed by the engineer Maurice Leger working in collaboration with Prince Albert I of Monaco. It was designed to measure small variations in the force of gravity and relate them to the depth of water.
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Figure 63. Marti's continuous recording sounder built by the French engineer Pierre Marti. In 1919, Marti began designing and describing sounding machines based on acoustic methods. This recording device allowed measuring time of sound emanation and time of reception, thus giving travel time which can be used to determine depth.
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Figure 63 (cont.) An example of a record from the Marti continuous recording sounder.
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Figure 64. Langevin Florisson echoscope built through collaboration of Professor Paul Langevin and Charles Florisson. This instrument was put into service in 1933 and used to measure shallow depths from small boats.
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Figure 64 (cont.) Projector unit for Langevin Florisson echoscope.

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