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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 31. Flat model surface thermometer. Although this thermometer is named "Richard thermometer" in the museum collections, this is probably an error. The accompanying certificate identifies it as being made by Fritz Kohler of the Ostwald Institute in 1910. It was probably meant to measure the temperature of water acquired with a surface sampling bucket.
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Figure 32. Richter surface thermometer, used for measuring the surface waters of the sea. This model was constructed in 1911 by Carl Richter in Berlin. Little is known as to when and where this instrument was tested and used. Undoubtedly it was meant to measure the temperature of water acquired with a surface sampling bucket.
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Figure 33. Meyer slow registering thermometer invented by Dr. Adolph Meyer and first used on the POMMERANIA in 1871 and then by various German scientific studies. It was used down to 50 meters but would stay submerged for about an hour to register the proper temperature because it was highly insulated.
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Figure 34. Thermometer used with Pettersson-Nansen insulation bottle. This bottle was a version of the Pettersson bottle with improvements made by Fridtjof Nansen in 1900. This thermometer was fixed to the inside cover of the bottle while a reversing thermometer was mounted on the outside. It was first tested on board the MICHAEL SARS in the Norwegian Sea in 3000 meters in 1900.
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Figure 35. Muller thermometer constructed by Gustav Muller for laboratory and research studies. It acted as a "normal" thermometer which was used with the Pettersson-Nansen insulation bottle. Because of the time for the temperature to equilibrate in the insulation bottle, the time to take a measurement was prolonged.
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Figure 36. Nansen thermometer for use with a water sampling bottle. This thermometer was conceived by Fridtjof Nansen in collaboration with Vagn W. Ekman . This was not a reversing thermometer but was used in an insulated bottle and then brought back to the surface for reading. It was tested on the FRITHJOF in 1910 at many hundreds of meters.
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Figure 37. Jacob thermometer devised by Martin Knudsen and constructed by Friedrich C. Jacob of Copenhagen. This thermometer was mounted inside an insula ted bottle that was lowered from an underway ship. This thermometer was of a classic design that had nothing particularly new.
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Figure 38. Knudsen thermometer devised by Martin Knudsen for use with an insulated water sampling bottle. Little is known about the testing or use of this thermometer.
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Figure 39. Knudsen thermometer constructed by the firm of Siebert and Kuhn. Little is known about this instrument.
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Figure 40. Aime's mechanism devised by Georges Aime in 1841 for triggering the release of water sampling bottles. Although the records of Aime's tests of this mechanism are not available, it seems that by using this mechanism that he was the first to take a series of water samples from bottles strung on the same cable at a number of different levels within the water column.
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Figure 41. Helical mounting mechanism of Negretti and Zambra. This mechanism was meant to cause the reversing thermometer of Negretti and Zambra to flip at the required depth. The helical screw would measure the depth on the way down and release the mounting at the desired depth. James Ferguson of the CHALLENGER modified this mechanism and tested it in the Sulu Sea at over 4000 meters
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Figure 42. Negretti and Zambra portable ballast mounting mechanism upon returning to the surface. This was designed to eliminate some problems associated with the mounting mechanism used on the CHALLENGER. This modificatio n was made in 1878 and is described in the scientific literature of the day..
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Figure 43. Magnaghi helical mounting devised by Giovanni Battista Magnaghi in 1881 near the end of his command of the Italian oceanographic expedition on the WASHINGTON. This mechanism was certainly inspired by the Sigsbee bottle mounting as well as the 1874 Negretti and Zambra water bottle mounting. The helical principle was used profitably by a many inventors and instrument makers.
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Figure 44. Magnaghi helical mounting (improved model.) This model resulted from the suggestion of Giovanni Battista Magnaghi to the London instrument maker s Negretti and Zambra, in 1881, to follow the ideas developed on the Italian navy ship WASHINGTON. Left: before reversing. Right: after reversing.
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Figure 45. Milne-Edwards mounting developed by Professor Alphonse Milne-Edwards for use with reversing thermometers on the TALISMAN scientific expedition of the French National Marine Administration in the North Atlantic in 1883. Two innovations were associated with this instrument. A slightly modified version of this mounting made by Paul Duimage was used on the HIRONDELLE.
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Figure 46. Rung mounting designed by Captain George Rung, an assistant at the Meteorological Institute of Denmark. In 1883 he described a new mechanism for releasing the reversing thermometers by means of a messenger system. With this system numerous bottles mounted on a cable could be released at various depths in series. Details of the original testing of this mechanism are unknown.
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Figure 47. Scotch messenger mounting invented by Hugh R. Mill who was inspired by the mounting devised by George Rung. Mill also incorporated design elements of the Magnaghi mounting. This instrument was first used in a series of observations from the ARK in 1884 in studies undertaken from the Scottish Marine Station at Granton.
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Figure 48. Scotch messenger mounting. Left: before reversing. Right: after reversing. This equipment was probably used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. The design is very similar to that used in the Magnaghi helical mounting, but instead used a messenger activating a lever to invert the reversing thermometer.
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Figure 49. Tanner helical mounting devised by Commander Zera Luther Tanner, USN , commanding officer of the U. S. Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS. It is very similar to other types of helical mountings in its design and operation. Tanner reported that it was relatively light but was very robust in operation.
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Figure 50. Luksch mounting and messenger system for inverting reversing thermometers. Invented by the Austrian Joseph Luksch and used during the scientific campaign of 1895-1896 on the POLA in the Mediterannean Sea and Red Sea.
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Figure 51. Pettersson universal apparatus designed by Otto Pettersson in 1904. This instrument sampled plankton and water, as well as measuring temperature, current velocity, and current direction. It was used for the first time in the Skaggerak and also in the Baltic Sea. The thermometer is placed in the horizont al cylinder shown at the back of the image.
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Figure 52. Richter mounting and messenger. This mounting was used by Franz Doflein for the measuring the temperature of the water in shoal depths in Sagami Bay, Japan. The thermometers used in this mounting were manufactured by Negretti and Zambra. Left: before reversing. Right: after reversing.
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Figure 53. Richter mounting with helical reversing mechanism. This mounting is very similar to that in Figure 52 but was used in great depths. It was used by Franz Doflein off the coast of Japan in 1904.
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Figure 54. Richter mounting with messenger and pump brake for slowing reversing action. With the earlier models used by Doflein, the mounting would flop over too quickly and jar the mercury column sufficiently to cause its separation. To slow down the reversing motion, a piston pump mechanism was installed on the mounting. This mounting was employed by Doflein off the coast of Japan in 1904.
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Figure 55. Stahlberg mounting devised by Dr. Walter Stahlberg, conservator of the Museum fur Meereskunde at Berlin. This mounting could be used with either a messenger for reversing in relatively shallow water or a helical system for deep water. It was used on board the German vessel MOWE off the coast of Africa in 1911.
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Figure 56. Negretti and Zambra mounting with chain and messenger reversing system. This system was devised in 1912 by Negretti and Zambra as a modification of the "Scotch" mounting.
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Figure 57. Kohler mounting and messenger system. This system was commercialized by Fritz Kohler at about the beginning of the Twentieth Century. However, its simplicity and fragility caused it to be little used.
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Figure 58. Insulated water bottle and thermometer devised by Rudolph Fuess about the end of the Nineteenth Century. It was used notably by German vessels.
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Plate 2. Magnifying glass devised by Fridtjof Nansen for reading thermometer scales. The thermometer is placed such that the two notches designated "c" are on the thermometer; the thermometer is adjusted such that the top of the mercury column is located at point "d"; and the reading glass is focused for reading the thermometer by turning the interior tube "a" within tube "b".
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Figure 59. Nansen microscope for precise reading of thermometers. This instrument was designed by Fridtjof Nansen to facilitate the reading of thermometer scales and to better be able to estimate values between graduations of the scale and also to better remove parallax errors. This instrument was designed about 1910 and constructed by the German Ernst Leitz.
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Figure 60. Richter microscope for reading thermometers. Much less sophisticate d than the Nansen microscope, was frequently used to read with good precision the scales of reversing thermometers. This instrument was described and conceived by the firm of Richter and Wiese in the early 1900's.
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Figure 61. Nansen magnifying glass for reading thermometers. This magnifying glass was described in Plate 2, image ship4353. This magnifying glass differed little from that devised by Richter. This type of glass was commercialized about 1914.
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Plate 3. Clement metallic thermometer - cross sectional schematic of the model at the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. The model at the museum was constructed by Negretti and Zambra in 1912 after the original made in 1839 by Leander Clement, the clock maker of Rochefort. The thermometer functioned by comparing the expansion (or contraction) of two strips of different types of metal.
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Figure 62. Breguet-Saxton metallic thermometer first invented about 1817 by the instrument maker Louis Abraham Breguet. The first of this type was composed of platinum, silver, and gold with the silver placed in the center. Differential expansion of the metals provided the temperature measurement. In 1848, Joseph Saxton made a similar one for the U. S. Coast Survey but it was inaccurate.
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Figure 63. Clement metallic thermometer, first mentioned in 1839 by the clock- maker of Rochefort, Leandre Clement. This thermometer functioned by the differential contraction or expansion of two strips of differing metals. They were soldered together in a spiral form. Left is the total assembly while above right is the indicating dial.
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Figure 64. Richard registering thermometer for use in great depths. This instrument recorded depths obtained by a bimetallic strip and was mounted in a water-tight caisson. Upper: registering device. Middle: recording paper. Bottom: water-tight caisson for protecting and housing the instrument. This instrument was first constructed between 1882 and 1891.
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Figure 65. Bounhiol thermometer register, used to record temperatures in an enclosed caisson lowered to depths. This instrument was devised by Jean -Paul Bounhiol, Professor at the higher school of sciences at Algiers, in 1908. He tested it at about 60 meters water depths in the vicinity of Algiers.
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Figure 65 (cont.) Recording paper used with Bounhiol thermometer register.
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Figure 66. Negretti and Zambra thermometer recorder. This instrument was developed in 1920 and was actuated by the principle of expansion and contraction of mercury in a Bourdon tube. Above: recording device. Bottom: sensor and conducting unit.
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Figure 67. The bathythermograph first conceived by Athelstan Spilhaus in 1936 and produced in 1937. This instrument measured a continuous profile of sea- temperature versus depth. It was the prototype of many types of instruments used either for studies of physical oceanography or for use by the undersea warfare community.
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Figure 67 (cont.) The recording of temperature versus pressure on the bathythermograph was done by etching a trace on smoked glass for reading upon recovery of the instrument at the observing vessel.
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Figure 68. Various models of Richard bathythermographs. These instruments are similar to the Spilhaus bathythermograph and were used between 1962 and 1967 by the firm of Jules Richard.
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Figure 69. Expendable bathythermograph made by Sippican Corporation. These instruments pay out a copper wire upon descent that has varying conductivity as the temperature changes. Depth is determined as a function of the rate of descent of the instrument. These are used by ships while underway to determine the temperature profile of the water column and corresponding velocity profile.
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Figure 70. Temperature sensor for deep water. This instrument was made by Crouzet Society of Valence, France and constructed by SAFARE-CROUZET. This was an early version of a CTD instrument in which temperature information was transmitted up a cable to a recording device. The pressure vessel protecting the sensor was rated to about 3,000 meters water depth.
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Catalog of the Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 7. "Miscellaneous Instruments, Deck Equipment, Laboratory Instruments, " by Christian Carpine. Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography. Volume 76, 1998, No. 1443.
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Plate I. Aime apparatus for the study of oceanic wave motion at depth described by Georges Aime in 1845. Aime should be considered as the predecessor of modern oceanography as he designed and created many innovative oceanographic measuring and analysis instruments that were models for those who followed. He was a professor at the University of Algiers.
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Figure 1. Model of Aime's first wave study instrument, built in 1838 and tested in the anchorage at Algiers the same year at depths of 11 and 18 meters. A wood top furnished with fixed points in the center of a sheet of lead and tilted by the movement of the water left markings in the metal which were compared to observations made at the surface.
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Figure 2. Display model of Aime's second wave study instrument built in 1839 and tested in the anchorage at Algiers in 40 meters water depth for one month. This gave negative results even during periods of poor weather. The device weighed nearly 200 pounds.
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Figure 3. Model of Aime's instrument for the study of lateral movement of waves and the movement of particles within the waves, built and tested at the anchorage at Algiers in 1839 in depths of 10 and 14 meters in waves up to 1.5 meters in height.
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Figure 4. Stevenson dynanometer, designed by the Scotch engineer Thomas Stevenson in 1843. This instrument measured the pressure exerted by waves on a vertical surface. He used this instrument to measure the pressure of waves at the lighthouse at Skerryvore where pressures close to 30 tons per square meter were observed.

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