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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Plate 4. Knudsen Burette, an apparatus for the determination of salinity of water samples.
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Figure 51. The Knudsen Burette, introduced by its inventor at the first international conference for the exploration of the sea in 1899, became one of the most used instruments in the world for determining salinity of a water sample.
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Figure 52. Richter burettes, fabricated by Carl Richter at an indeterminate date. It is certain that the firm of Richter and Wiese made this type of burette for measuring salinity up until the recent times.
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Figure 53. Schmidt burette - although little information exists regarding this instrument, it probably was invented by the German chemist Paul Schmidt for use on the VALDIVIA expedition in 1898-1899.
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Figure 54. Pellet burette - this instrument was produced by the French chemist Henri Pellet. It uses the same principle as that of the Richter or Schmidt burette. It has an automatic zero level, in which the reactive reservoir is pressurized by a rubber bulb.
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Figure 55. Boutron and Boudet hydrometric devices for measuring density of fresh water.
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Plate 5. Knudsen apparatus for the determination of the nitrogen and oxygen levels in sea water. Model with three burettes.
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Figure 56. Jacobsen device for extracting gases from sea water. This device was invented by Professor Oscar Georg Jacobsen, a member of the German Baltic expedition of 1871-1872. It was based on an instrument conceived by Robert Bunsen. Water samples were obtained by Meyer bottle.
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Figure 57. Dittmar device for extracting gases from sea water. This device was described by the British professor William Dittmar of Anderson's College in Glasgow. He used it to analyze sea water sampled during the CHALLENGER expedition. It complemented the use of the Jacobsen apparatus used by John Y. Buchanan during the CHALLENGER expedition.
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Figure 58. Classen device for the measurement of carbon dioxide in sea water. The German chemist Alexander Classen elaborated on the use of this device in 1876. The work of Wilhelm Borchers in 1878 on the determination of carbonic acid in mineral water that led to the use of this instrument. After improvement , it was used by Hercules Tornoe on the Norwegian North Atlantic expedition.
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Figure 59. Dittmar device for measuring carbon dioxide in sea water. This device was used by William Dittmar, then professor at Anderson's College in Glasgow for analyzing sea water collected by the CHALLENGER expedition. This instrument is a variant of the apparatus designed by Alexander Classen and used by Hercules Tornoe on the Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition.
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Figure 60. Regnard apparatus for the study of the diffusion of oxygen in sea water. Concerned with the diffusion of air in sea water in still water, Doctor Paul Regnard, a French physiologist, invented this device based on an experiment by Julien Thoulet. He used the property that certain materials change their color in the presence of oxygen and described the device in 1891.
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Figure 61. Pettersson device for the measurement of oxygen and nitrogen in sea water. This device was developed by Professor Otto Pettersson who used it at the Hydrographic Station at Borno, Sweden. With this apparatus one could measure the oxygen, nitrogren, and carbon dioxide content of sea water. This instrument was first described in 1891.
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Figure 62. Knudsen apparatus for the measurement of oxygen and nitrogen in sea water. This was a "multiple use" device that simultaneously was able to analyze sea water for the presence and amount of a number of gases. It was developed by the Dane Martin Knudsen and used by Ingolf in 1895 and 1896.
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Figure 63. Sorensen device for the determination of H+ ions. This device which measured the pH of water by a colorimetric method was devised by the Danish chemists Soren Peter Lauritz Sorensen and Sven Palitsch and used during the Danish oceanographic expedition on the THOR between 1908 and 1910.
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Plate 6. Thoulet device for separating minerals by means of an iodine solution. This device is typical of many that Julien Thoulet, a French mining engineer, developed for the study of sediments in the ocean. Thoulet became associated with the University of Nancy and then devoted himself to oceanography beginning in 1885.
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Figure 64. Series of Thoulet's sieves for sorting sediment material of varying sizes on the top. On the bottom, various types of laboratory glass ware used by Thoulet in sediment studies. Thoulet was very concerned with the classificatio n of marine sediments beginning with his first interest in oceanography in 1885.
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Figure 65. Thoulet device for separating sediment from water. This device was developed to obtain very fine sediment samples that were still suspended in the water after passing through a series of sieves. Thoulet developed this instrument in 1878 prior to developing an interest in oceanography.
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Figure 66. Thoulet vertical tube for sorting sediments. According to Julien Thoulet, this device was "frequently used for the mechanical analysis of seafloor sediments being examined."
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Figure 67. Pelometer for the rapid sorting of sediments in water. Professor Julien Thoulet used this device on board research ships to rapidly determine the nature of seafloor sediments. It would allow quick classification into a single category such as mud, sandy silt, or muddy sand for entry into a station log. Thoulet used the pelometer described by Bouquet de la Gyre.
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Figure 68. Thoulet device for classifying minerals by means of an iodine solution. This device used the principle of buoyancy of solids in liquids to determine the density of the solid being tested. In this manner, mineral material in a bottom sample could be quickly determined.
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Figure 69. Magnetic device for separating and classifying minerals. This early device that used an electro-magnet to separate minerals of different magnetic properties was conceived of by the French mineralogist Ferdinand Foque in 1879.
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Figure 70. Thoulet device for measuring the density of minerals by means of an iodine solution. The method used in image ship4445 was very crude but this device gave a real measurement, which although a long and delicate process, could be very precise.
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Figure 71. A Mohr-Westphal density balance. This instrument was first described in 1832 by the German chemist Carl Friedrich Mohr. It is a balance with two arms, where the equilibrium is reached by adding weight on a tray. This type of instrument was modified by G. Westphal who replaced the tray with an adjustable counterweight. Julien Thoulet used this type of instrument in his studies.
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Figure 72. Pycnometers for the measurement of the density of sediments. According to Thoulet, the apparent density of a sediment is the weight per cm cubed of the dry sediment when compressed as much as possible. The true densit y is the relation of the weight of the sample relative to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at 4C. Thoulet studied these sediment properties.
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Figure 73. Thoulet device for measuring the virtual density of large samples. Julien Thoulet described this method in 1905 for determining the apparent density of pumice stones, in order to better understand the origin of these rocks which were found in abundance in bottom samples obtained by the PRINCESSE ALICE.
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Figure 74. Device for determining the amount of carbon dioxide in a water sampl e. This is a Schoedter apparatus which is still used today. A sample is treate d with hydrochloric acid which transforms carbonates into chlorides at which time carbon dioxide is released. The difference in weight of a before and after sample determines the weight of CO2.
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Figure 75. Device for determining the color of bottom samples. This device was conceived and described by Julien Thoulet in 1910.
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Catalog of the Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 8. "Supplements, Demonstration Material, Meteorology: Additions and Cumulative Index, " by Christian Carpine. Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography. Volume 76, 1999, No. 1444.
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Figure 1. A plastic Secchi disk of recent origin. This disk is lowered in the water until it disappears from sight. The depth at which it disappears is a measure of the water's transparency. Father Angelo Secchi devised this method in 1865 and tested it aboard the Vatican vessel IMMACOLATA CONCEZIONE. Several models were tested of different colors.
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Figure 2. A model of the vessel and equipment used by the French physiologist Paul Regnard for studies of light penetration in the water and its effects on chemical and biological phenomena. In 1889 and 1890, he performed several studies aboard a tartane, a small local fishing and trading vessel.
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Figure 3. Brouardel's luxmeter. This instrument was constructed in 1956 at the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco by Jean Brouardel and Emile Rinck for their studies on the primary production in the Mediterranean Sea according to the methods of Steeman Nielsen. It was especially designed for photoelectric measurements in deep ocean water.
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Figure 4. Li-Cor photometer. This photometer was investigated by Dr. Jean Brouardel in 1974 in a quest for instruments of greater precision. He investigated several including a Li-Cor quantum/radiometer/photometer developed by industry especially for measuring light in water or in air in relation to photosynthesis. Construction date and details of study conditions are unknown.
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Figure 5. Compact luxmeter, used for study of light in air. Simplicity of design and use have joined with greater and greater precision of measurement in this mass-produced industry instrument. Although apparently an instrument used in meteorology, it is shown here because of the relationship between solar radiation and photo synthesis.
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Figure 6. Pyranometer, a sensor used to measure variations in solar radiation. It is used with a recording device, the solarigraph. The principle of operation of the pyranometer is that of the thermophile of the Dutch Willem Moll. This principle was adapted by Dr. Ladislaw Gorczynski of the Meteorological Institute of Varsovia in 1924. The instrument shown was probably made in the 1940's.
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Figure 7. Photometer recorder - most recording devices of this type are designed to be compatible with the area under which observations of radiation are made. Thus, this recorder, which recorded in units of millivolts, was designed for use with the pyranometer in the preceding image.
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Figure 8. Integrating solarimeter - measures energy developed from solar radiation based on the absorption of heat by a black body. The principle this instrument was designed on was first developed by the Italian priest, Father Angelo Bellani. He invented the actinometric method which is based on physical and chemical techniques.
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Plate I. Bifilar current meter designed by Otto Pettersson and described in 1905.
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Figure 9. Winch system for use with the Pettersson bifilar current measuring device. It is a hand-crank winch designed for use in less than 100-meters water depth. Prince Albert I of Monaco personally used such a winch for observations on Gorringe Bank in 1904.
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Figure 10. Dahl-Fjeldstad current meter - designed by assistant professor Jonas Ekman Fjeldstad of the University of Bergen in collaboration with the Norwegian engineer Odd Dahl. It automatically punched its readings on a tin strip for later reading and analysis. This system was completed in 1937.
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Figure 11. Lyth river current meter- this instrument is identical to that built by Ambler-Lafond. It functions according to the turnstile principle of Reinhard Woltman which dates from the end of the 19th Century.
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Figure 12. Quadrangular dredge - the origin of this instrument is unclear although it is similar to those used on the ALBATROSS at the end of the Nineteenth Century, the TRAVAILLEUR in 1880, and by Raffaele Issel in 1918.
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Figure 13. A clamshell type grab sampler - this device was meant to grab material from the upper layers of seafloor sediment for study of the embedded fauna.
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Plate 2. An early water sample bottle meant to preserve ocean water samples for further study of dissolved oxygen in the water.
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Figure 14. A Hydro Products water sampling bottle. This type of water sampling bottle was first designed by Dr. William B. Van Dorn of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1956.
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Figure 15. Support frame for four water sampling bottles. This instrument accessory was found in the middle of pieces of scrap iron. It was made in the museum workshop as shown in the accompanying photo by Jean Comelli and Jean Cros who worked on prototypes fabricated at the Museum's workshop. It appears to be a forerunner of the modern rosette sample frame.
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Figure 16. Cases of bottles for preserving water for salinity measurements. The bottles were placed in crates partitioned to protect against shock. The flasks were sealed to prevent evaporation and contamination. Flasks were closed by ground glass stoppers, but the bottles were closed with rubber rings and and metal levers for ease of sealing and opening.
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Figure 17. Bottles for preserving water samples for the study of dissolved oxygen. Methods used for preserving water for oxygen samples differed significantly from those used for preserving salinity samples.
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Figure 18. Crates of bottles for water samples designated to study dissolved oxygen. The upper crate contains 15 bottles while the lower crate contains 24. Such crates have been used to store bottles with ground glass stoppers for dissolved oxygen samples since the beginning of the Twentieth Century.
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Plate 3. Title page of the guide to German instruments at the International Oceanographic and Marine Fisheries Exposition of 1906. A description of Apstein's mud sampling tube was found in this document.

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April 30, 2013