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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

10250 thumbnail picture
Map of the track of the Cable Ship DACIA in 1883, showing Concepcion, Dacia, Seine, Josephine, and Gettysburg Banks, and Coral Patch, by Edward Stallibrass in "Deep-Sea Sounding in Connection with Submarine Telegraphy," Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians, Volume XVI, No. 68, pp. 478-521.
10251 thumbnail picture
World map with ocean physiography published in 1887 in Appletons' American Standard Geographies Physical Geography , pp. 20-21. Note "Alaska Deep" and "Alaska Rise" off the coast of South America. These were discovered by George Belknap on the USS Alaska in 1882 and were the first published names for the Peru-Chile Trench and Chile Rise.
10252 thumbnail picture
Atlantic Ocean as shown by John D. Quackenbos and William Healy Dall in: Appletons' American Standard Geographies Physical Geography , pp. 20-21. The Dolphin Rise was named for the USS DOLPHIN which first sounded on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge under Lieutenant Commanding Otway Berryman in 1853.
10253 thumbnail picture
Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean as shown by John D. Quackenbos and William Healy Dall in: Appletons' American Standard Geographies Physical Geography , pp. 20-21. Note that Ninety East Ridge is missing and that the deepest depth yet observed up to 1887 was the TUSCARORA Deep in what we now call the Kuril Trench to the NE of Japan.
10254 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the Atlantic Ocean, Chart 1A, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
Atlantic Ocean
10255 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the Indian Ocean, Chart 1C, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
Indian Ocean
10256 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the Pacific Ocean, Chart 1B, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
Pacific Ocean
10257 thumbnail picture
Section of North Pacific Ocean on Murray's map of the Pacific Ocean, Chart 1B, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
10258 thumbnail picture
Title page to George Davidson's "The Submerged Valleys of the Coast of California....", in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Third Series, Vol.1, No. 2. This paper documented Coast Survey discoveries of submarine canyons beginning with the first ever discovered, Hueneme Canyon, in 1855. Monterey Canyon was the second, discovered in 1857.
10259 thumbnail picture
A map by Adolph Lindenkohl of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey showing the specific gravity of the waters of the North Pacific Ocean. Published in Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen in 1897.
10260 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's world map of 1899, Atlantic Ocean. The only physiographic feature he named were deeps, defined as area of the seafloor believed to have depths greater than 3000 fathoms.
10261 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's world map of 1899, Indian Ocean. The only physiographic feature he named were deeps, defined as area of the seafloor believed to have depths greater than 3000 fathoms.
10262 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's world map of 1899, Pacific Ocean. The only physiographic feature he named were deeps, defined as area of the seafloor believed to have depths greater than 3000 fathoms.
10263 thumbnail picture
Alexander Supan's world map of 1899 showing both deeps and bathymetric highs of the World Ocean. Note difference in names between Supan and Murray in previous map. Supan's naming methodology prevailed in the Twentieth Century. Note also the Karolinen Graben running parallel to the Caroline Islands as opposed to the correct orientation of the Mariana Trench.
10264 thumbnail picture
Alexander Supan was among the first to recognize the nature of oceanic trenches. Compare his nomenclature for the Aleutian Trench to John Murray's 1899 map. Perhaps Supan Deep as shown by Murray was a little jab as Murray continued this sort of terminology until his untimely death in 1914.
10265 thumbnail picture
A Russian map of the Barents Sea by L. Brietfuss and A. Smirnow published in 1905. Additions to soundings based on the expeditions of Willem Barentz and Karl Weyprecht.
10266 thumbnail picture
A Russian map of the Barents Sea by L. Brietfuss and A. Smirnow published in 1905. Same map as the last.
10267 thumbnail picture
Otto Krummel's map of the Mariana Trench. In: "Handbuch der Ozeanographie", 1907. This corrects the error made by Supan in his 1899 map which showed a Karolinen Trench running parallel to the north side of the Caroline Islands.
10268 thumbnail picture
A map of Germany's western Pacific colonies as of 1910. The Mariana Trench and Tonga-Kermadec Trenches are shown clearly as are a few seamounts. The deepest spot on this map is now in the Mariana Trench, SE of Guam, with a depth of 9636 meters. The deepest point in the Mariana Trench is now know to be approximately 10,915 meters.
10269 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the World Ocean by Sir John Murray. He published one more map prior to his death which still retained his use of personal names for major features of the world ocean and did not acknowledge the configuration of most trenches.
10270 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Atlantic Ocean by the German oceanographer Gerhard Schott. Note the use of the term Telegraph Plateau following the 1858 nomenclature of Maury. In: "Geographie des Atlantischen ozeans" by Gerhard Schott. Library Call No. GC481 .S34 1. Aufl. (1912) .
10271 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Atlantic Ocean by Max Groll. Although quite similar to Gerhard Schott's map, it is totally devoid of feature names. The number of included soundings, although providing evidence for the determination of contour lines, tends to obscure the overall pattern of seafloor features.
10272 thumbnail picture
The northern half of the 1912 Atlantic Ocean map by Max Groll. In: Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen. Plate I, Atlantic Ocean.
10273 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Indian Ocean in Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen by Max Groll. Note the light-colored (shallower) area between Australia and Antarctica, an early indication of the continuity of the oceanic ridge system in the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans. Amazingly, a feature as large as Ninety East Ridge had yet to be discovered. Plate II, Indian Ocean.
10274 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Pacific Ocean in Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen by Max Groll. Note the light-colored (shallower) area in the vicinity of what is today called the East Pacific Rise, and early indication of the continuity of the oceanic ridge system. Plate III, Pacific Ocean.
10275 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the world ocean published in 1912. Murray stuck with his nomenclature and interpretation of features until his death. The German geographers were definitely ahead of the world in their understanding of the nature of the seafloor and our planet until the Second World War.
10276 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's continuation of the naming of features for researchers even though they never worked in a given area. Supan had understood the nature of the Aleutian Trench and named it accordingly in 1899. Murray refused to acknowledge either the interpretation or the naming system proposed by Supan which has since been adopted by the world with minor modifications.
10277 thumbnail picture
Gerhard Schott's 1912 map of the Arctic Basin and North Atlantic showing numerous distinct basins and, although first soundings on Reykjanes Ridge was probably on H.M.S. BULLDOG in 1860, this is among the first maps to show it as a named feature. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott, 1912. P. 120.
10278 thumbnail picture
An early profile of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P.88.
10279 thumbnail picture
A map of the rugged topography around the Azores Islands produced by Gerhard Schott. This map gives an indication of the level of detail achievable with piano-wire sounding technology. Map VII, p. 112, Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott 1912. Library Call No. GC481.S4 1.Aufl. (1912).
10280 thumbnail picture
An inset map of an area off the coast of Brazil, South America, showing numerous banks and seamounts. Probably most of these features were discovered by British Cable Ship operations. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P.103.
10281 thumbnail picture
An inset map of the Congo Canyon in: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans, by Gerhard Schott, 1912. P. 102.
10282 thumbnail picture
A cross-sectional view of Hudson Canyon by Gerhard Schott in 1912. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P. 109.
10283 thumbnail picture
A map of the Atlantic Ocean off NW Africa, the same area covered by Edward Stallibrass in map00031, with tables showing the least depth and extent of the banks in square kilometers. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott in 1912. P.111.
10284 thumbnail picture
A map of the Atlantic Ocean off NW Africa, the same area covered by Edward Stallibrass in map00031. In: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott, 1912. P. 111.
10285 thumbnail picture
A profile view of Seine Bank in: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans by Gerhard Schott, 1912. It shows a flat-topped seamount, what we would today call a guyot. In fact, many of the seamounts discovered prior to the invention of the echo sounder were flat-topped seamounts having a wide surface area on the top increasing the probability of discovery by widely spaced piano-wire soundings.
10286 thumbnail picture
This map used Sir John Murray's bathymetric map as the base map for a map of world vulcanism. Published in 1914 under the title "Oro-Bathygraphical Chart of the World." This was probably one of the last maps published using Sir John Murray's nomenclature and interpretation of the bathymetry of the seafloor.
10287 thumbnail picture
The last of the Murray-Supan controversy over nomenclature as shown on this 1914 map titled Oro-Bathygraphical Chart of the World. Sir John Murray died in 1914 as the result of an automobile accident.
10288 thumbnail picture
A 1925 map of the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean showing discoveries made from 1911 to 1915 by Russian surveyors and explorers. This map was published as "The Russian Hydrographical Expedition to the Arctic" in The Geographical Review, Vol. XV, No. 3, 1925.
10289 thumbnail picture
Map showing the route and profile of soundings obtained by the USS STEWART in 1922. The STEWART crossed the Atlantic and ran a complete line of acoustic soundings and obtained over 900 measurements of depth from the East Coast of the United States to the Straits of Gibraltar. Although not the first line of acoustic soundings, it ushered in the use of acoustics in ocean exploration.
10290 thumbnail picture
The Atlantic Ocean in "Geographic das Atlantischen Ozeans", 1925, published by Gerhard Schott on the eve of the famous German METEOR Expedition in 1925. There are few, if any, substantive changes between this map and Schott's 1912 map. Most of the large features of the ocean floor had been discovered by the early 1900's. However, ocean scientists were on the edge of a new era of discovery.
10291 thumbnail picture
The North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean in: "Geographic das Atlantischen Ozeans", 1925, published by Gerhard Schott. This was in the second edition of his work on Oceanography and basically showed that little additional knowledge of this area had been obtained since 1912. See image map00062.
10292 thumbnail picture
This 3-dimensional view of the equatorial Atlantic seafloor was produced following the German METEOR Expedition of 1925-1927. Unfortunately it was destroyed during the Second World War but the image survives. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge snakes down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean between Brazil on the left and Africa on the right.
10293 thumbnail picture
State of knowledge of the Southern Ocean in 1929 as compiled by the American Geographical Society.
10294 thumbnail picture
"Echometre" record obtained by the French liner S.S. De Grasse when crossing over the head of a canyon on Georges Bank. Such records reinforced the view that vessels could navigate by using bathymetry. Accordingly, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey embarked on a project to map the continental slopes and shelves to help guide mariners into United States ports.
10295 thumbnail picture
This submarine valley was discovered by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey during survey operations using acoustic sounding systems coupled with the newly developed Radio Acoustic Ranging (RAR) navigation system allowing relatively accurate navigation without having to rely on either visual astronomic positioning or visual ties to objects on land.
10296 thumbnail picture
These canyons were discovered by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey on the continental slope south of Georges Bank. They were contoured by Francis Shepard, the Father of Submarine Geology, who began his career as a marine geologist working cooperatively with the USC&GS.
10297 thumbnail picture
Map of the Atlantic Ocean by Theodore Stocks following the completion of the German METEOR Expedition.
10298 thumbnail picture
"Gravimetrical-Geological Map of the East Indian Archipelago" by Vening Meinesz, et al. In: Gravity Expeditions at Sea 1923-1932. 1935 Vol II. Plate IV. This map is possibly the first to hint at the correlation between gravity and bathymetry as the Java Trench is mirrored by the red and pink negative gravity anomaly south of the island of Java.
10299 thumbnail picture
Map of the Atlantic Ocean published following the METEOR Expedition by Theodor Stocks and George Wust in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935.

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