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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

11950 thumbnail picture
Middle section of survey line run by Lt. Joseph Dayman on HMS CYCLOPS during telegraph cable survey of 1857. The work of Berryman and Dayman between in 1856 and 1857 respectively marked a new era in ocean exploration, the beginning of systematic surveys, in this case to determine a telegraph cable route.
11951 thumbnail picture
Eastern section of survey line run by Lt. Joseph Dayman on HMS CYCLOPS during telegraph cable survey of 1857. The work of Berryman and Dayman between in 1856 and 1857 respectively marked a new era in ocean exploration, the beginning of systematic surveys, in this case to determine a telegraph cable route.
11952 thumbnail picture
Cover to the publication by Lt. Joseph Dayman detailing the work of running the first lines of soundings across the Atlantic Ocean as part of an intentional planned survey.
11953 thumbnail picture
In 1858, Matthew Fontaine Maury modified his 1854 map to show the Telegraphic Plateau extending east-west across the Atlantic Ocean and an area of relatively shoal ground which he called Middle Ground. The Telegraphic Plateau actually extended through much of what is known today as the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone with no high mountains giving the illusion of a plateau.
11954 thumbnail picture
A map of Hudson Canyon reproduced in James Dwight Dana's Manual of Geology, first edition, published in 1862. This map was provided by the United States Coast Survey to Dana. The first discovery of submarine canyons occurred on the Pacific Coast, Hueneme Canyon in 1855 and Monterey Canyon in 1857.
11955 thumbnail picture
A curious map of the Arctic Ocean showing land extending north from Greenland. Published in 1869 in Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen.
11956 thumbnail picture
Josephine Bank, the first seamount discovered as a direct result of intentional exploration. Discovered by the Swedish Corvette Josephine in 1869. Northern 9/10 of bank.
11957 thumbnail picture
Josephine Bank, the first seamount discovered as a direct result of intentional exploration. Discovered by the Swedish Corvette Josephine in 1869. Southern 1/2 of bank.
11958 thumbnail picture
Josephine Bank, the first seamount discovered as a direct result of intentional exploration. Discovered by the Swedish Corvette Josephine in 1869. Image digitally merged from images map00016 and map00017.
11959 thumbnail picture
The east coast of the United States showing the continental shelf, shelf break, continental slope, and sediment types. This was one of the first published maps of this nature. The Coast Survey had rediscovered the continental shelf break in 1848. Count Luigi Marsili had first noted it in the Gulf of Lyon about 1720 but that information had been forgotten in the mid Nineteenth Century.
11960 thumbnail picture
"The Sea Bottom off Florida and Cuba" as published by Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen in 1870. This map was drawn by Louis Francois de Pourtales of the the United States Coast Survey. Pourtales Plateau was named by Louis Agassiz, the first undersea feature off the continental shelf in U.S. waters that was discovered as the result of oceanographic exploration.
11961 thumbnail picture
"The Sea Bottom off Long Island" as published by Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen in 1870. This map was drawn by Louis Francois de Pourtales of the the United States Coast Survey. Map shows head of Hudson Canyon, the canyon axis as shown by the Mud Holes as it crosses the continental shelf, and the sediment types.
11962 thumbnail picture
Full page presentation of the two maps shown in image map00019 and map00020. as published by Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen in 1870 by Louis Francois de Pourtales of the United States Coast Survey.
11963 thumbnail picture
Map of the North Atlantic Ocean published on the eve of the CHALLENGER Expedition in "The ocean, atmosphere, and life...." by the French geographer Elisee Reclus. This map shows some very large non-existent shoals to the east of Newfoundland as well a deep extending to the NE which seems imaginative. The profile is based on the work of Dayman and Berryman in 1856/1857.
11964 thumbnail picture
Map of the Atlantic Ocean published after the outward bound segment of the CHALLENGER Expedition. This map shows little improvement over earlier versions. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is shown bending to the west south of the Azores and there is no expression of the ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean.
11965 thumbnail picture
Map of the area southeast of New Guinea showing various reefs and islands in a sparsely surveyed area. In: Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen for 1874.
11966 thumbnail picture
Map of the Congo Canyon, one of the great canyons on the west coast of Africa. The source is noted as "Medlycott and Flood", 1875. Medlycott is mentioned by as having been associated with HMS LYNX in 1859 on the west coast of Africa, so this would place the discovery of Congo Canyon sometime between 1859 and 1875.
11967 thumbnail picture
The "Contour Map of the Atlantic" should be known as one of the classical maps of the Earth Sciences. This version of the map was published by Sir Wyville Thomson of the CHALLENGER Expedition in 1877 and is the first ever to show the continuity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The N-S line in the south Atlantic followed the ridge and is among the most important survey lines ever run.
11968 thumbnail picture
This map, by Augustus Petermann, was the first bathymetric map of the Pacific Ocean. Data was acquired by the CHALLENGER, the USS TUSCARORA, and the German research ship GAZELLE. Note the much denser sounding information on the TUSCARORA as the result of first use of piano-wire sounding. Note the Tuscarora Deep, first discovery of a trench, today called the Japan-Kuril Trench.
Pacific Ocean North 1877
11969 thumbnail picture
Soundings taken by the first USS ENTERPRISE exploration vessel under the command of Captain Albert S. Barker. This was the first U.S. ship to specifically circumnavigate the globe on a sounding and temperature measuring expedition. Note the shoal area at approximately 29 N 34 W. This was originally called the Barker Rise but is now called the Rio Grande Rise.
Atlantic Ocean South 1883-1886
11970 thumbnail picture
Track of the USS ENTERPRISE across the Indian Ocean. Note the 3097 fathom sounding southwest of Sumatra. That sounding is the first indication of the Java Trench. A few years later, Sir John Murray named that area the Enterprise Deep, a name which has been superceded by Java Trench.
Indian Ocean 1883
11971 thumbnail picture
Track of the USS ENTERPRISE across the southern Pacific Ocean in 1885. At the time this line was run, it was the furthest south continuous east-west sounding line yet observed.
Pacific Ocean South 1885
11972 thumbnail picture
Profiles of Concepcion Bank and Seine Bank by Edward Stallibrass, a British telegraph engineer, as published in 1887 in "Deep-Sea Sounding in Connection with Submarine Telegraphy," Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians, Volume XVI, No. 68, pp. 478-521.
11973 thumbnail picture
Maps of the track of the DACIA in 1883, the Bottomless Pit, and Congo Canyon, by Edward Stallibrass, a British telegraph engineer, as published in 1887 in "Deep-Sea Sounding in Connection with Submarine Telegraphy," Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians, Volume XVI, No. 68, pp. 478-521.
11974 thumbnail picture
Map of the Congo Canyon as surveyed by the Cable Ship BUCCANEER, by Edward Stallibrass, a British telegraph engineer, as published in 1887 in "Deep-Sea Sounding in Connection with Submarine Telegraphy," Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians, Volume XVI, No. 68, pp. 478-521.
11975 thumbnail picture
Map of the "Bottomless Pit" (a canyon) as surveyed by the Cable Ship BUCCANEER, by Edward Stallibrass, a British telegraph engineer, as published in 1887 in "Deep-Sea Sounding in Connection with Submarine Telegraphy," Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians, Volume XVI, No. 68, pp. 478-521.
11976 thumbnail picture
Map of the track of the Cable Ship DACIA in 1883, showing Concepcion, Dacia, Seine, Josephine, and Gettysburg Banks, and Coral Patch, by Edward Stallibrass in "Deep-Sea Sounding in Connection with Submarine Telegraphy," Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians, Volume XVI, No. 68, pp. 478-521.
11977 thumbnail picture
World map with ocean physiography published in 1887 in Appletons' American Standard Geographies Physical Geography , pp. 20-21. Note "Alaska Deep" and "Alaska Rise" off the coast of South America. These were discovered by George Belknap on the USS Alaska in 1882 and were the first published names for the Peru-Chile Trench and Chile Rise.
11978 thumbnail picture
Atlantic Ocean as shown by John D. Quackenbos and William Healy Dall in: Appletons' American Standard Geographies Physical Geography , pp. 20-21. The Dolphin Rise was named for the USS DOLPHIN which first sounded on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge under Lieutenant Commanding Otway Berryman in 1853.
11979 thumbnail picture
Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean as shown by John D. Quackenbos and William Healy Dall in: Appletons' American Standard Geographies Physical Geography , pp. 20-21. Note that Ninety East Ridge is missing and that the deepest depth yet observed up to 1887 was the TUSCARORA Deep in what we now call the Kuril Trench to the NE of Japan.
11980 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the Atlantic Ocean, Chart 1A, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
Atlantic Ocean
11981 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the Indian Ocean, Chart 1C, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
Indian Ocean
11982 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's map of the Pacific Ocean, Chart 1B, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
Pacific Ocean
11983 thumbnail picture
Section of North Pacific Ocean on Murray's map of the Pacific Ocean, Chart 1B, accompanying the Summary of Results of the Challenger Expedition, 1895.
11984 thumbnail picture
Title page to George Davidson's "The Submerged Valleys of the Coast of California....", in Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Third Series, Vol.1, No. 2. This paper documented Coast Survey discoveries of submarine canyons beginning with the first ever discovered, Hueneme Canyon, in 1855. Monterey Canyon was the second, discovered in 1857.
11985 thumbnail picture
A map by Adolph Lindenkohl of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey showing the specific gravity of the waters of the North Pacific Ocean. Published in Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen in 1897.
11986 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's world map of 1899, Atlantic Ocean. The only physiographic feature he named were deeps, defined as area of the seafloor believed to have depths greater than 3000 fathoms.
11987 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's world map of 1899, Indian Ocean. The only physiographic feature he named were deeps, defined as area of the seafloor believed to have depths greater than 3000 fathoms.
11988 thumbnail picture
Sir John Murray's world map of 1899, Pacific Ocean. The only physiographic feature he named were deeps, defined as area of the seafloor believed to have depths greater than 3000 fathoms.
11989 thumbnail picture
Alexander Supan's world map of 1899 showing both deeps and bathymetric highs of the World Ocean. Note difference in names between Supan and Murray in previous map. Supan's naming methodology prevailed in the Twentieth Century. Note also the Karolinen Graben running parallel to the Caroline Islands as opposed to the correct orientation of the Mariana Trench.
11990 thumbnail picture
Alexander Supan was among the first to recognize the nature of oceanic trenches. Compare his nomenclature for the Aleutian Trench to John Murray's 1899 map. Perhaps Supan Deep as shown by Murray was a little jab as Murray continued this sort of terminology until his untimely death in 1914.
11991 thumbnail picture
A Russian map of the Barents Sea by L. Brietfuss and A. Smirnow published in 1905. Additions to soundings based on the expeditions of Willem Barentz and Karl Weyprecht.
11992 thumbnail picture
A Russian map of the Barents Sea by L. Brietfuss and A. Smirnow published in 1905. Same map as the last.
11993 thumbnail picture
Otto Krummel's map of the Mariana Trench. In: "Handbuch der Ozeanographie", 1907. This corrects the error made by Supan in his 1899 map which showed a Karolinen Trench running parallel to the north side of the Caroline Islands.
11994 thumbnail picture
A map of Germany's western Pacific colonies as of 1910. The Mariana Trench and Tonga-Kermadec Trenches are shown clearly as are a few seamounts. The deepest spot on this map is now in the Mariana Trench, SE of Guam, with a depth of 9636 meters. The deepest point in the Mariana Trench is now know to be approximately 10,915 meters.
11995 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the World Ocean by Sir John Murray. He published one more map prior to his death which still retained his use of personal names for major features of the world ocean and did not acknowledge the configuration of most trenches.
11996 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Atlantic Ocean by the German oceanographer Gerhard Schott. Note the use of the term Telegraph Plateau following the 1858 nomenclature of Maury. In: "Geographie des Atlantischen ozeans" by Gerhard Schott. Library Call No. GC481 .S34 1. Aufl. (1912) .
11997 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Atlantic Ocean by Max Groll. Although quite similar to Gerhard Schott's map, it is totally devoid of feature names. The number of included soundings, although providing evidence for the determination of contour lines, tends to obscure the overall pattern of seafloor features.
11998 thumbnail picture
The northern half of the 1912 Atlantic Ocean map by Max Groll. In: Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen. Plate I, Atlantic Ocean.
11999 thumbnail picture
A 1912 map of the Indian Ocean in Tiefenkarten der Ozeane mit Erlauterungen by Max Groll. Note the light-colored (shallower) area between Australia and Antarctica, an early indication of the continuity of the oceanic ridge system in the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans. Amazingly, a feature as large as Ninety East Ridge had yet to be discovered. Plate II, Indian Ocean.

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