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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

14800 thumbnail picture
This submarine valley was discovered by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey during survey operations using acoustic sounding systems coupled with the newly developed Radio Acoustic Ranging (RAR) navigation system allowing relatively accurate navigation without having to rely on either visual astronomic positioning or visual ties to objects on land.
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These canyons were discovered by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey on the continental slope south of Georges Bank. They were contoured by Francis Shepard, the Father of Submarine Geology, who began his career as a marine geologist working cooperatively with the USC&GS.
14802 thumbnail picture
Map of the Atlantic Ocean by Theodore Stocks following the completion of the German METEOR Expedition.
14803 thumbnail picture
"Gravimetrical-Geological Map of the East Indian Archipelago" by Vening Meinesz, et al. In: Gravity Expeditions at Sea 1923-1932. 1935 Vol II. Plate IV. This map is possibly the first to hint at the correlation between gravity and bathymetry as the Java Trench is mirrored by the red and pink negative gravity anomaly south of the island of Java.
14804 thumbnail picture
Map of the Atlantic Ocean published following the METEOR Expedition by Theodor Stocks and George Wust in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935.
14805 thumbnail picture
Title page to "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935. By Theodor Stocks and George Wust. This work was an analysis of the bathymetry of the METEOR cruise showing the most detailed morphological information of the seafloor ever attained up to that time. It clearly showed the nature of the Mid- Atlantic Ridge and led eventually to the discovery of the median valley.
14806 thumbnail picture
The echo-sounding profiles of the South Atlantic Ocean as correlated along longitude 30W. These profiles were generated following the METEOR Expedition by Theodor Stocks and George Wust and published in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, Table I.
14807 thumbnail picture
A series of stacked profiles which possibly were used in the building of the seafloor model shown in image map00077. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
14808 thumbnail picture
The center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge showing where soundings had been made. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
14809 thumbnail picture
Some of the large features noted on the Stocks and Wust map in: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans" 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
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An attempt to understand the morphology of the Romanche Deep area, an area known today to be the location of a major fracture zone offsetting the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935, by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
14811 thumbnail picture
A longitudinal diagram of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge showing its high points from 60 N latitude to approximately 60S latitude. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935 by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
14812 thumbnail picture
Two alternate interpretations of what is now termed the "tectonic fabric" of the seafloor in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The lower map is in accordance with modern mapping and interpretation and shows hills and ridges running parallel to the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In: Die Tiefenverhaltnis se des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935 by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
14813 thumbnail picture
A map showing the abyssal hills to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 16S. In: "Die Tiefenverhaltnisse des Offenen Atlantischen Ozeans", 1935 by Theodor Stocks and George Wust.
14814 thumbnail picture
A map of the world ocean between about 50N and 10S in: In: Gravity Expeditions at Sea 1923-1932. 1935. Vol II, Plate I, by Vening Meinesz, et al. Map shows location of gravity profiles in the world ocean up to that time.
14815 thumbnail picture
1935 map of the Indian and Pacific Oceans by Gerhard Schott. In: :Geographie des Indischen und Stillen Ozeans," 1935. Table IV in back pocket. The East Pacific Rise, South Pacific Swell, Carlsberg Ridge, the Pacific trenches, but still no Ninety East Ridge.
14816 thumbnail picture
"Distribution of Earthquakes" as mapped by Commander Nicholas Heck of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and published in the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union for 1936 (P. 93) clearly showing the seismicity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and some other segments of the world rift system.
14817 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the Indian Ocean.
14818 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the North Pacific Ocean.
14819 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the South Atlantic Ocean.
14820 thumbnail picture
Distribution of surveyed areas and survey lines in the South Pacific Ocean.
14821 thumbnail picture
Salt domes discovered by Coast and Geodetic Survey, described and interpreted by Francis Shepard. GSA Bulletin; September 1937; v. 48; no. 9; p. 1349-1361
14822 thumbnail picture
Mississippi Canyon discovered by Coast and Geodetic Survey, described and interpreted by Francis Shepard. GSA Bulletin; September 1937; v. 48; no. 9; p. 1349-1361
14823 thumbnail picture
1937 tectonic map including offshore bathymetry of Portugal showing numerous offshore canyons. Part of Bruce Heezen collection at NOAA Central Library.
14824 thumbnail picture
A single salt dome off Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River discovered by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, contoured by Francis Shepard. GSA Bulletin; September 1937; v. 48; no. 9; p. 1349-1361.
14825 thumbnail picture
1938 3-D model of the North Pacific Ocean based on soundings taken by the USS RAMAPO during numerous crossings of the North Pacific Ocean. This model was produced by the Navy Hydrographic Office.
14826 thumbnail picture
Francis Shepard's diagram showing worldwide distribution of known submarine canyons. The predominance of known canyons off the United States and the Philippines is the result of work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and its development of the radio-acoustic ranging navigation system prior to WW II. Published in Geographical Review, July, 1938.
14827 thumbnail picture
Altair Seamount as surveyed by the German Research vessel ALTAIR. This, and Davidson Seamount on the West Coast of the United States, by the Coast and Geodetic Survey were among the first detailed studies of seamounts by acoustic soundings. Contoured by Albert Defant 1939. Published in International Hydrographic Review.
14828 thumbnail picture
1939 chart of the Caribbean by Navy Hydrographic Office showing state of knowledge of bathymetry of the Caribbean and surrounding seas.
14829 thumbnail picture
1939 chart of the Caribbean by Navy Hydrographic Office showing state of knowledge of bathymetry of the Caribbean and surrounding seas.
14830 thumbnail picture
1939 chart of the Caribbean by Navy Hydrographic Office showing state of knowledge of bathymetry of the Caribbean and surrounding seas.
14831 thumbnail picture
Spectacular cross-section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge clearly showing median valley obtained as the result of soundings taken on the German research vessel METEOR. This profile and the accompanying paper by Gunter Dietrich clearly establishes Dietrich as the first to recognize the continuity of the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 1938 original publication.
14832 thumbnail picture
Profiles surmising the continuity of what are now called abyssal hills in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Illustration strikingly similar to tracing continuity of magnetic anomaly pattern. Produced by Gunter Dietrich 1938.
14833 thumbnail picture
Title page of "Some Morphological Results of the Cruise of the "METEOR" January to May 1938" by Gunther Dietrich. Published in International Hydrograph ic Review 1939. This article clearly establishes Gunther Dietrich as the first to note the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Pp. 52-55.
14834 thumbnail picture
2nd page of "Some Morphological Results of the Cruise of the "METEOR" January to May 1938" by Gunther Dietrich. Published in International Hydrograph ic Review 1939. This article clearly establishes Gunther Dietrich as the first to note the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Pp. 52-55.
14835 thumbnail picture
3nd page of "Some Morphological Results of the Cruise of the "METEOR" January to May 1938" by Gunther Dietrich. Published in International Hydrograph ic Review 1939. This article clearly establishes Gunther Dietrich as the first to note the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Pp. 52-55. Note the final paragraph of this page.
14836 thumbnail picture
4th page of "Some Morphological Results of the Cruise of the "METEOR" January to May 1938" by Gunther Dietrich. Published in International Hydrograph ic Review 1939. This article clearly establishes Gunther Dietrich as the first to note the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Pp. 52-55. Dietrich here describes the parallel undulations marching off the crest of the main ridge.
14837 thumbnail picture
A very small-scale map of the world ocean produced by the International Hydrographic Bureau in 1939. Perhaps because of the patterning, this map has a somewhat odd appearance.
14838 thumbnail picture
Josephine Bank as contoured by Albert Defant in 1939 from acoustic soundings.
14839 thumbnail picture
Section of 1939 North Pacific chart 5486 by Navy Hydrographic Office showing hundreds of seamounts, the true configuration of the Aleutian Trench, and some of the southern seamounts of what became known as the Emperor Seamount Chain extending north from the vicinity of Midway Island.
14840 thumbnail picture
Southeast section of 1939 North Pacific chart 5486 by Navy Hydrographic Office showing use of name Albatross Plateau for East Pacific Rise leading into Gulf of California. It was not until 1960 that H.W. Menard popularized the name East Pacific Rise.
14841 thumbnail picture
Northeast section of 1939 North Pacific chart 5486 by Navy Hydrographic Office showing few of the seamounts surveyed by the C&GS during the years 1925-1939. See images map00126-map00128.
14842 thumbnail picture
C&GS Chart 5101A, 1939, a prototype chart incorporating bathymetry acquired with RAR navigation by the C&GS out to oceanic depths. This chart was meant for navigation by following bottom contours. No other chart like this was ever produced as WWII intervened and the use of electronic navigation systems became widespread. The C&GS surveyed the continental margin of the U.S. by 1939.
14843 thumbnail picture
The famous A.C. Veatch and Paul Smith map of the Mid-Atlantic continental slope which attracted great attention from the scientific world as it showed the results of precision radio acoustic ranging navigation and acoustic sounding. With the exception of Hudson Canyon, none of the other canyons were known at the time of publication of this map.
14844 thumbnail picture
Harold Murray of the C&GS published this pioneering study of undersea mountains 1941. Many of the seamounts depicted on this chart were flat-topped seamounts later termed guyots by Harry Hess of Princeton.
14845 thumbnail picture
Systematic mapping of the Gulf of Alaska by C&GS ships going to and from their Alaska nautical charting surveys led to the discoveries shown in images map00126 and map00128.
14846 thumbnail picture
Flat-topped seamounts, later termed guyots, as noted by Harold Murray of the C&GS.
14847 thumbnail picture
The discovery survey of Astoria Canyon off the Oregon coast. The lines of dots are lines of soundings navigated by means of radio-acoustic ranging, the first precision navigation system to eliminate the need for visual signals. This system was developed by the C&GS in the 1920's and used until WWII. Many discoveries were made because of it.
14848 thumbnail picture
Monterey Canyon as published by George Davidson in 1897. This canyon was the second canyon ever discovered, Hueneme Canyon being first in 1855 and Monterey Canyon in 1857. In: "The Submerged Valleys of the Coast of California", Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, Series, Vol.1, No. 2.
14849 thumbnail picture
Hueneme Canyon as published by George Davidson in 1897. This canyon was the first submarine canyon ever discovered and was found as the result of United States Coast Survey hydrographic surveys in 1855. In: "The Submerged Valleys of the Coast of California", Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, Series, Vol.1, No. 2.

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