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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Outside of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco showing the name of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE, one of nineteen ships thus honored.
Monaco
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The Oceanographic Museum at Monaco
Monaco
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A bronze casting of the likeness of Prince Albert of Monaco
Monaco
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A marble statue of the likeness of Prince Albert of Monaco
Monaco
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A bronze statue of Prince Albert of Monaco in heavy weather gear while at the helm of one of his vessels.
Monaco
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Catalog of Oceanographic Equipment Contained in the Collection of the Museum of Oceanography of Monaco. 1. "Photometers 2. Current Measuring Devices" by Christian Carpine. Bulletin de l'Institute Oceanographique , Vol. 73, No. 1437. 1987.
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Figure 1. H. Fol and E. Sarasin Photometers. 1. 1884 model. 2. and 3. 1885 model. 4. and 5. 1886 model as published in Fol and Sarasin, 1887. Photometers are instruments to measure light. They are used to study how far light penetrates into the water, sometimes the color of the water, and, also in modern instruments, bioluminescence.
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Figure 2. H. Fol and E. Sarasin photometer, 1884 model. Left: device closed. Right: Device opened. This instrument was used in 1885 to study the penetration of light in Lake Leman and after that in the Mediterranean. It was tried off Cape Ferrat, France, in between 200 and 400 meters water depth.
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Figure 3. H. Fol and E. Sarasin photometer, 1885 model. From top to bottom - Device closed; device open; the surface float. This model was designed to fix the weak point of the preceding model that was not able to execute a sole measurement at a given depth.
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Figure 4. H. Fol and E. Sarasin photometer, 1886 model. This instrument was tested at Villefranche-sur-Mer on board Fol's yacht, the AMPHIASTER. The results were not published.
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Figure 5. P. Regnard's combination photometer and photometric recording device. Invented by Paul Regnard in 1888 for measuring the intensity and duration of lig light with increasing depth. It was used by Prince Albert aboard a steam tug off Funchal at depths of 20, 30, and 40 meters. The balloon pressure device was not part of the original instrument but added afterwards.
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Figure 6. P. Regnard hydrochloric acid tube designed by Paul Regnard about 1889 to study the chemical action of light in oceanic waters.
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Figure 7. E. von Petersen's photometer. Left: device before opening. Middle: device during exposure. Right: device after closing. This device was invented in 1886 by Eugen von Petersen, an engineer at the Naples zoological station. The design follows the specifications of Carl Chun. The first test of this ins trument was by Carl Chun off Capri in 250 meters water depth.
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Figure 8. L. Linsbauer's photometer. Left: a picture of the unit. Right: a picture of the internal photometer mechanism. This instrument was invented by Ludwig Linsbauer for use in fresh water. It was used in Lake Traunsee in the northern part of Austria in 1904 at small depths.
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Figure 9. W. F. Ewald's photometer. The photometer is inverted with the lens uncovered. Invented by Wolfgang F. Ewald about 1908. An earlier instrument of this type is not part of the museum collection. The test of the original was in a lake near Munich and then in a fjord near Bergen.
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Figure 10. W. F. Ewald's photometer. Vibration model activated by shaking the cable that the instrument was attached to. This model was invented by Wolfgang F. Ewald in 1910 and tested near the coast of Scotland.
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Figure 11. W. F. Ewald's photometer, messenger model, at the end of operation. Invented by Wolfgang F. Ewald about 1910 to fix some of the problems of the previous model. First tested about 1910 off the coast of Scotland. Other tests were then made off Capri.
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Figure 12. E. B. Helland-Hansen's photometer. Left: device before opening. Middle: Device during exposure. Right: Device after closing. Invented by Bjorn Helland-Hansen in 1910, this photometer was used aboard the MICHAEL SARS in the North Atlantic. It was first used near the Azores at depths of 500 to 700 meters.
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Figure 13. R. Bertel's spectograph invented by Rudolph Bertel in 1910. This instrument was designed to study the penetration of the various wavelegths of light into the waters off Monaco. The first test of this instrument was aboard the EIDER off Monaco in 1911 in 500 to 600 meters water depth.
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Figure 13. (cont) R. Bertel's spectograph. Left: exposure mechanism before opening. Middle: Exposure mechanism during opening. Right: Exposure mechanism after closure. See image ship4014 for further discussion.
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Figure 13. (end) R. Bertel's spectograph. The optical device. See image ship4014 for further discussion.
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Figure 14. W. F. Ewald's and K. Grein's photometer. Left: view of the apparatus. Right (from top to bottom): messenger container; removable photographic plates; removable filters. This instrument was designed by Wolfgang F. Ewald with the aid of Klaus Green. It was first tested off Capri and put to the definitive tests off Monaco in up to 500 meters.
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Figure 15. K. Grein's photometer invented and made by Klaus Green in 1912 as part of a series of photometers devised in collaboration with Wolfgang Ewald. This instrument was first tested from the EIDER in 1913 between 500 meters water depth. As a result of these tests, Grein began studies of the penetration of ultra-violet light into the sea.
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Figure 16. J. Richard's photometer. Left: the apparatus. Right, (from top to bottom): exposure mechanism before opening; exposure mechanism during opening; exposure mechanism after opening.
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Figure 17. Luksch disk, made by Joseph Luksch about 1880 and used in that year aboard the HERTA, the yacht of Prince John II of Liechstenstein. It was provided with five interchangeable 36-cm reflecting plates of different metals, some painted. Afterwards, Luksch used polished white iron disks and white painted disks of 45 cm diameter on the POLA.
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Figure 18. Color measuring scale of Francoise-Alphonse Forel. Forel invented this scale in 1887 for the study of the color of water, and precisely for that of Lake Leman. He conducted his first experiments in Lake Leman in 1887.
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Figure 19. Color measuring tube of Julien Thoulet, designed about 1903 to facilitate the use of Forel's color scale. It was only a little more practical than the original form.
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Figure 20. Color measuring lens of Julien Thoulet designed in 1903 as per the intention of Prince Albert 1st of Monaco. Thoulet tested this instrument at the laboratory at Nancy. It is possible that this instrument was also tested on the PRINCESS ALICE II in 1905.
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Figure 21. Oceanographic float devised by Prince Albert of Monaco, 1887 model. These floats were used to study surface currents.
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Figure 22. Current indicator designed by Georges Aime in 1845. Top: view of the assembled unit; bottom image, view of the interior workings. Although Aime designed this instrument, it was constructed for use by Admiral Carl Irminger and used to measure currents of the Atlantic from the Danish bark Ornen off Madeira in 1847 at a depth of 632 meters.
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Figure 23. Current meter invented by Jacob Amsler-Laffon about 1876. This instrument was devised to measure the currents of streams and rivers. It was an application of Woltman's electrical turnstile method of measuring the current. The first use of this instrument was in the Rhine River near Schaffhouse in 1876 . 278 measurements were made at 26 stations at 6 meters depth.
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Figure 24. Current meter invented by Ernest Mayer in 1877 for studying currents of the Adriatic Sea. The first tests were made near Pola in the northe rn Adriatic, by Professors Joseph Luksch and Julius Wolf of the Austrian Marine Academy in 1877. They were aboard the steamer DELI.
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Figure 25. Current meter invented by Thorsten Arwidsson in 1880. Viewing the backside. This instrument was devised for rapid measurement by stationary naval vessels.
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Figure 26. Current meter invented by Thorsten Arwidsson for use in shallow water. Less information is available concerning this model than the preceding instrument. However, it was used by the explorer Sven Hedin, member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the last person to receive Swedish knighthood.
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Figure 26 (cont). Closeup view of the meter assembly of Thorsten Arwidsson's shallow water current meter.
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Figure 27. A Massey current meter invented by Edward Massey. Top - view of the meter; bottom - view of the meter in its working position.
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Figure 28. Fluxmeter invented by Admiral Stepan O. Makaroff in 1882 and used in the Straits of Bosporus. Its initial test was made from the Russian vessel TAMAN in the Straits of Bosporus in 1882 at about 73 meters depth.
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Figure 29. Pillsbury current meter invented by John Elliott Pillsbury and used in an extensive study of the Gulf Stream studies beginning in 1876. But it was not until 1885 that Pillsbury used this instrument in the Straits of Florida at a depth of 640 meters. He was a naval officer assigned to duty on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE during these years.
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Figure 30. Pendulum current meter invented by Fridtjof Nansen in 1901 with considerable improvements made in 1903. This instrument was not able to accurately measure weak currents.
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Figure 31. Ekman current meter invented by V. Walfrid Ekman about 1903. This instrument was distinguished by its original manner for measuring both the strenth and direction of the current. It was very robust and used throughout the world during the first half of the 20th Century. It was first tested in the Skagerrak in 1903 aboard the MICHAEL SARS.
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Figure 32. Ekman current meter as modified by Max Marx in 1913.
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Figure 32 (continued). View of helical impeller of Ekman current meter as modified by Max Marx.
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Figure 33. Clockwork counting device of Ekman current meter. Left: before triggering the release. Right: After triggering the release.
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Figure 34. Universal current measuring device invented by Otto Petterson in 1904. This instrument was intended to measure current and temperature, as well as collect plankton. Left: in operation. Right: after measurement. This instrument was first tested in the Skagerrak and then in the Baltic Sea between 30 and 200 meters water depth.
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Figure 35. Current meter invented by Giovanni Boccardo in 1906. Boccardo was the chief instrument maker of the Royal Italian Hydrographic Institute. This high precision instrument eliminated many of the faults of earlier current meters. It was first tested near La Spezia about 1906.
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Figure 36. Current meter invented by Jacob Peter Jacobsen in 1909. Left: view of the assembled unit. Right from top to bottom: bubble levels; sample bucket. This instrument was used by Jacobsen for many years. He first tested it in the Grand Belt from the vessel THOR in 1909.
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Figure 37. Current meter invented by Otto Pettersson 1910 with photographic recorder. Left: view of the assembled unit. Right: details of the measuring device and recorder. This was the first current measuring device to be able to record both direction and strength of current for long periods. It was first used from a pontoon at Goteborg in 1911.
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Figure 38. Percussion current meter invented by Julien Thoulet. Top: Number 99 0610. Bottom: Number 99 0611. When the helix turned it caused a striker to fall on a steel plate. The sound of this was recorded by a hydrophone and the number of recorded sounds per unit time was directly related to current strength . This was tested off Monaco by Dr. Jules Richard in 1921.
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Figure 39. Current indicator invented by James Norman Carruthers in 1924. This meter works on the principle used in the Robinson anenometer. Left: picture of the unit. Right: unit open to view interior mechanism. This current meter was meant primarily for use by fishermen. It was first tested off the fireboat SAINT NICHOLAS off Great Yarmouth, Great Britain, in 1924.
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Figure 40. Current recording device invented by Pierre Idrac in 1927. This device was first used in the Gulf of Gascogne and in the la Manche on the vessel POURQUOI-PAS in 1927.

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