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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 30. Closing device of the Apstein closing net. Left: open. Right: closed. Devised by Carl Apstein in 1903 and used in the North Sea. This was used for quantitative plankton studies and was first used in the North Sea in 1903.
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Figure 31. Vertical net devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1903 and used on the PRINCESSE-ALICE II in the Bay of Quiberon for quantitative sampling of plankton the same year.
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Figure 32. Plankton bottle devised by James I. Peck of Williams College, Massachusetts, and Nathan R. Harrington of Columbia University, New York, in 1896. It was used to collect plankton, both animal and vegetable, at various depths. It was first used in 1896 at the entrance to Puget Sound, Washington, at 5 levels up to 205 meters depth.
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Figure 33. Kofoid plankton sampling bucket devised by Charles A. Kofoid of the University of California at Berkeley in 1905. It was used on board the vessel LOMA out of San Diego. This bottle was used to acquire a volume of water in which the plankton would be counted for quantitative studies of life in the sea. This instrument closely resembled a Pettersson bottle.
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Figure 34. Brouardel simple bottle for sampling the organic productivity of the sea. Devised by Jean Brouardel of the Oceanographic Institute of Paris and Emile Rinck of the Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Paris in 1956. Left: open. Right: closed. This sampling method followed the type developed by Steeman Nielsen.
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Figure 35. Double automatic sampling bottle of Brouardel devised by Jean Brouardel and Emile Rinck in 1958. This bottle was used to measure organic productivity in the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity of Monaco on board the WINNARETTA-SINGER. Left: open. Right: closed. This bottle was desi gned for in situ measurement of phytoplankton by the Carbon-14 method.
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Figure 36. Double sampling bottle of Brouardel. Left: open. Right: closed. This type of bottle was used in 1959 for measuring organic productivity in the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity of Monaco on board the WINNARETTA-SINGER in the vicinity of Monaco in 1959. This bottle was designed for in situ measurement of phytoplankton by the Carbon-14 method.
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Figure 37. Falconetti and Vaissiere turning net devised by Raymond Vaissiere and Claude Falconetti of the University of Nice in 1972. Top: the equipment. Bottom: in operating position. This net was designed to capture plankton and the larvae of benthic species at a small distance off the bottom. It was able to stay under water for prolonged periods and easy to use.
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Figure 38. Fischer bacterial sampling device invented by Doctor Bernhard Fischer of the University of Kiel in 1894. He described this instrument in the reports of the Plankton-Expedition. It functioned with the aid of a helical screw for closing.
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Figure 39. Portier and Richard microbe sampling bottle invented by Doctor Paul Portier of the Laboratory of Physiology of the Faculty of Sciences, Paris, and Doctor Jules Richard, director of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco in 1902. It was a great improvement over preceding models and gave very pure samples. It was tested between 1000 and 3000 meters depth off the Azores in 1902
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Figure 40. Liebert bacterial sampling apparatus invented by Francois Liebert in 1908 at the "Rijksinstituut voor het onderzoek der zee" and first used off the vessel WODAN in the North Sea. It sampled at depths from the surface to between 20 and 40 meters on this initial test.
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Figure 41. Apstein instrument and graph for determining the depth of horizontal ly towed nets. First noted by Carl Apstein in 1909, this instrument was used for many years to determine the depth of net at various towing speeds and amount of tension on the towing line.
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Figure 42. Top: Richard apparatus for examining live plankton. Bottom: a sample holding tank for studying plankton. Devised by Dr. Jules Richard in 1905 and used aboard the PRINCESSE-ALICE II. It was meant to allow study under ship conditions including rolling and pitching. This instrument was also used in shore laboratories.
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Figure 43. A piston pipette used in determining the amount of plankton in a given volume of water. Used by Victor Hensen in 1887.
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Figure 44. Apstein apparatus used for measuring small amounts of plankton. Carl Apstein conceived this apparatus in 1909 for measuring the total amount of plankton by the displacement of liquid. sample.
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Figure 44 (cont.) A circular sieve for straining plankton from the water used with the Apstein plankton measuring device.
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Figure 45. Jacobsen and Paulsen apparatus for the measurement of plankton in a water sample. Devised by Jacob Peter Jacobsen of the Danish Hydrographic Laboratory and Doctor Ove Paulsen, of the Botanical Museum of the University of Copenhagen, in 1910. This instrument was easier to use and less subject to "operator" error than the preceding model.
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Figure 46. Hirondelle sled trawl devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco for use on l'HIRONDELLE in 1886. This type of trawl was very successful and used over the course of 30 years in the various scientific expeditions of Prince Albert I of Monaco and continued to be used later by small vessels of the Oceanographic Museum. It was first used in 60 meters of water in the Gulf of Gascogne in 1886.
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Figure 47. A large mesh net designed by Prince Albert I of Monaco for use in towing at high speed. This net was constructed in 1896 and used on board the PRINCESSE-ALICE but was not very effective and its use was discontinued. It was tested on the PRINCESSE-ALICE off Monaco in 2148 meters in 1896.
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Figure 48. A sea bottom dredge designed by Jacques Picard in 1961 at the Marseille Marine Station and first used in the Bay of Marseille. This was meant to sample the fauna living in the sediments covering the seafloor. This instrument is similar to a box dredge or deep sea anchor dredge. It was first tested in 1961 in the Bay of Marseille.
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Figure 49. An Ekman bottom sampler for use in zoological sampling operations. This instrument was capable of acquiring a sample from a surface area covering 500 sq cm. This device was designed by Dr. Sven Ekman of Jonkoping, Sweden in 1910. This sampler was spring-loaded and snapped shut to acquire mud and silt. Although tested in a lake, it was equally useful in the sea.
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Figure 50. Petersen scoop bottom sampling device used by the Danish scientist C. G. Johan Petersen for studies of the bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea from 1910 to 1912. Top: the original sampler. Bottom: sampling device in the Oceanographic Museum. Petersen studied the samples to make precise quantitative studies of the fauna in the sedimentary material.
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Figure 51. A Birge-Ekman bottom sampling device. This sampler was described by by the American limnologist Edward Birge in 1921 and used in lacustrine studies . Top: open. Bottom: closed. This instrument was very similar to the Ekman bottom sampler. Only the closing device was different.
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Figure 52. Knudsen bottom sampler designed by Martin Knudsen, a professor at the University of Copenhagen. This machine was meant to improve the sampling ability of the Petersen sampling device in more compact sediment layers. It was tested in the Oresund between Denmark and Sweden off the DANA in 11 meters of water in 1926.
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Illustration 2. Recovery of the triangular fish trap. Drawn by Louis Tinayre and engraved by Duplessis; taken from "The Career of a Navigator", the work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, third edition published in 1914.
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Figure 53. Triangular fish trap used by Prince Albert I of Monaco on his first oceanographic expedition on l'HIRONDELLE in 1886.
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Figure 54. Small cylindrical bow net first devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco about 1888.
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Figure 55. Electric lamp invented by the Austrian Klaus Grein in 1912. This lamp was used on the EIDER in 1912 to attract fish at depths from 0 to 800 meters.
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Figure 56. Regnard phosphorescent tubes designed by the physiologist Paul Regnard to attract certain marine fish to nets and traps used in biological sampling. These tubes were designed about 1888 and used by Prince Albert I of Monaco with his sampling nets. Left: two-ring model. Right center: one-ring model. Bottom: Reflecting plate.
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Figure 57. Trawl line hooks. Top: Hooks with their leaders. Bottom: an individual hook. The hooks were spread out along the same line and used to good advantage for catching fish, similar to what is called long-lining today. Prince Albert I of Monaco used this method in his first scientific expeditions. This method was particularly used by Henry Bouree for his studies.
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Catalog of Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 4: "Bottles for Water Sampling" by Christian Carpine. Bulletin de l'Institute Oceanographique, Vol. 75, No. 1440. 1993.
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Figure 1. Hooke bottle, invented in 1663 by Robert Hooke, assistant to Robert Boyle, "Curator of Experiments" of the Royal Society. Although this sampling device probably never operated as wished, it is still considered the prototype ancestor of many types of water sampling devices.
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Figure 2. Hales water sampling bottle. This was designed by Reverend Stephen Hales about 1749 and used on H.M.S. EARL of HALIFAX in 1751 in depths ranging from 100 to 1600 meters. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 3. Phipps and Franklin water bottle. First used by the Captain of the RACEHORSE, Constantine John Phipps in 1773, and then a similar bottle used by Lieutenant John Franklin on board the TRENT in 1818 on a voyage to Spitzbergen.
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Figure 4. Scoresby insulated bottle invented by William Scoresby, an early Nineteenth Century whaler with a passion for studying the physical sciences. His first model of this water sampling bottle was invented about 1809. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 5. Scoresby and Cavendish water sampling bottle. Scoresby working with Cavendish made modifications to his original sampling bottle and called the new one MARINE DIVER. This sampling instrument was used to more than 2000 meters water depth in 1817. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 6. Aime release device invented by Georges Aime, professor of physics, at the College of Algiers in 1841. This device was used for collecting water samples for analyzing dissolved gases in the water.
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Figure 7. Old valve bottle. Although this type of water sampling bottle was first invented around 1860, unfortunately the original inventor is unknown. Such a bottle was utilized on the PORCUPINE and on the BLAKE. The bottle shown here was made by Max Marx.
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Figure 8. Valve bottle assembled about 1860, inventor unknown. Left: valve bottle descending. Right: Valve bottle ascending after obtaining sample. This bottle was constructed by Max Marx.
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Figure 9. Old hinged valve bottle; inventor unknown; date of first use unknown. This example was constructed by Max Marx. Left: Appearance on descent. Right : after closing and ascending.
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Figure 10. Piston bottle for acquiring water from near the bottom. The inventor is unknown. However, such a bottle was constructed for the Commission of Kiel in 1870. This instrument was made by Max Marx in about 1913. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 11. Meyer glass water sampling bottle invented by Dr. Adolph Meyer of the Commission of Kiel and used on the POMMERANIA for studies in the Baltic Sea in 1871. This sampling bottle was used in surface layers of water to about 10 meters. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 12. Behrens and Jacobsen water sampling bottle invented by Doctor Oscar Jacobsen and Heinrich Behrens at the University of Kiel in 1872. Water samples were recovered for study of dissolved gases during the POMMERANIA expedition to the North Sea in 1872. Left: descending. Right: on the bottom, ready for ascent.
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Figure 13. Behrens and Jacobsen water bottle (second model, 1873.) The rubber sampling bottle is missing in this example. In descending mode.
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Figure 13 (cont). Behrens and Jacobsen water bottle (second model, 1873.) The rubber sampling bottle is missing in this example. On the bottom.
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Figure 14. Meyer bottle, invented by Heinrich Adolph Meyer, of the Commission of Kiel, and built by Carl Seeman. A and B are deep water set up; A descending , B at the bottom; C shallow-water setup descending, D ascending. These bottles were used during the POMMERANIA expedition in the North Sea in 1872 and in 1874 during the GAZELLE circumnavigation of the Earth.
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Figure 15. Meyer bottle, invented by Heinrich Adolph Meyer, of the Commission of Kiel, and built by Ludwig Steger. A and B are deep water set up; A descending, B at the bottom; C shallow-water setup descending, D ascending. These bottles were used during the POMMERANIA expedition in the North Sea in 1872 and in 1874 during the GAZELLE circumnavigation of the Earth.
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Figure 16. Milne bottle constructed by James Milne of Edinburg and used on the CHALLENGER Expedition. Left: descending. Right: ascending. This type of bottle was modified from the design of the Meyer bottle.
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Figure 17. Challenger model of the Buchanan bottle, devised by the chemist of the expedition, John Buchanan, to sample intermediary layer waters. Left: descending. Middle: closing. Right: ascending. This type of bottle was used during the course of the voyage, from 1872 to 1876.
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Figure 18. Sigsbee bottle in open position, invented by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN, in 1875. This bottle was used on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE. This type of bottle was used by the navies of many nations. The bottle as shown is in the open position.

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