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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 68. BYB bottle. This type of bottle has a similar closing mechanism as the Van Dorn bottle. It was commercialized through the Nereides Society. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 69. Buchanan sounding apparatus and water bottle. This instrument was devised by John Buchanan for the simultaneous collection of a bottom sediment sample and a water sample at the bottom. Schematic drawing from: Murray, J. and Reynard, A. F., 1891. Report on the scientific results of H. M. S. Challeng er... Deep-sea deposits, pp. 1-32. Figure 7.
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Figure 70. Buchanan sounding bottle. This instrument was devised after the Challenger Expedition. It was better than preceding instruments for collecting water samples in close proximity to the bottom. It was first tested aboard the PRINCESS ALICE in 1894 in the open Atlantic off Morocco in 2782 meters.
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Figure 71. Brouardel coring device. This instrument was designed to obtain a sample of the upper layers of sediment and the water directly above the bottom. It was designed by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet for studying the dissolved oxygen in the waters next to the bottom. It was constructed by Jean Comelli between 1952 and 1954 and tested aboard the EIDER.
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Figure 72. Brouardel surface sampler. This instrument was designed to obtain a sample of the top layers of sediment with the overlying water. A forerunner of this instrument was the surface mud sampler built for limnological studies by Bernard M. Jenkins of the Freshwater Biological Association. This instrument was built by Jean Comelli and tested in 1954 on the EIDER.
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Catalog of Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 5: "Sounding Instruments" by Christian Carpine. Bulletin de l'Institute Oceanographique, Vol. 75, No. 1441. 1996.
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Figure 1. A drilled roller (round boulder) used as a sounding weight. Figure 2 . Ordinary sounding lead weight, sometimes attaining many kilograms. The lead dates from the Christian era. The trapezoidal form with a recess for tallow and acquiring bottom samples dates from a few centuries back. In this form, millio ns of sounding were made. Fig. 3. French sounding lead used in many expeditions.
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Figure 4. A lead fish used for continuous sounding operations at slow speed. This device was invented in 1914 and improved by Pierre Marti in 1920.
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Figure 5. Stellwagen sampling sounder invented by Lieutenant Henry S. Stellwagen, USN, while on Coast Survey duty in 1842. This sampler was undoubted ly one of the first sounder-samplers of simple design that was used in a systematic manner for scientific purposes. It was invented in 1842.
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Figure 6. Brooke sounder, invented by Midshipman John M. Brooke, USN, at the instigation of Matthew Fontaine Maury of the United States Naval Observatory in 1852. This was the first sounding device to abandon its lead at the bottom and return with a sample. Initially, it was built with two hooks for release and malfunctioned but was rebuilt with a single hook and used successfully in 1853.
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Figure 6 (cont.) Brooke sounding device in the descent position.
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Figure 7. Bonnici sounder, invented by Carmelo Bonnici, a blacksmith on HMS SPITFIRE. This device was used in surveys in the Black Sea in 1855. Left: descending. Right: Schematic drawing of the apparatus after striking the bottom.
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Figure 8. Skead sounder invented by Francis Skead during telegraph survey operations between Malta and Crete off HMS TARTARUS in 1857. This device was designed to mitigate problems with the Brooke and Bonnici sounders. The first would sink in soft sediment without detaching the weight while the second rarely returned samples.
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Figure 9. Sands sounder invented by Commander Benjamin F. Sands, USN, while on duty with the U. S. Coast Survey in 1857. Compression of the spring actuated levers, which separated the symmetric halves of the weight which then fell to the bottom. A valve was actuated creating a void which allowed sediment to enter the tube. Pulling up the line reset the valve capturing the bottom sample
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Figure 10. Bulldog sounder, invented by Marine Engineer Roughton, assistant engineer Steil, and naturalist George C. Wallich for use in deep water sounding operations by HMS BULLDOG in the North Sea and North Atlantic Ocean in 1860 while under command of Sir Leopold McClintock RN. This device was also used on HMS PORCUPINE in water depths up to 3200 meters in 1862.
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Figure 11. Lightning sounder, designed in 1866 by Lieutenant Charles C. P. Fitz gerald, RN. This model was used on the LIGHTNING during the Faroe Islands expedition of 1868. It was used for systematic sounding operations in depths up to 1189 meters and according to Charles Wyville Thomson, a mission participant, it never failed despite its primitive and unlikely appearance.
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Figure 12. Hydra sounder, made by Mr. Gibbs and colleagues on the HMS HYDRA during the 1868 Indian Ocean expedition commanded by Captain Peter F. Shortland. Some of the first deep soundings in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans were made with this instrument rigged for use with a Hodge accumulator. Among the important soundings was one of over 3400 meters at 31.05 S Lat and 12.25E Long.
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Figure 13. Bouquet de la Grye sounder, invented by the French hydrographic engineer Anatole Bouquet de la Grye in 1869. The main point about this device was a new type of weight release mechanism, based on the action of spring released at the moment that the weight contacted the bottom. This method was used extensively on cable survey ships.
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Figure 14. Baillie sounder, a version of the Hydra sounder, was designed in 1871 by Lieutenant Charles W. Baillie, RN, when he was on the North American station. This instrument was almost immediately adopted by the British Hydrogra phic Office. Two of these instruments were placed on the CHALLENGER in 1873 and used successfully.
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Figure 15. Wille sounder, first described by Captain Carl Fredrik Wille of the Norwegian naval vessel VORINGEN in 1876.
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Figure 16. Combination water sampling bottle and sounder designed by John Y. Buchanan after his return from the Challenger expedition in 1877. This instrument worked better than preceding models for water sampling and was used regularly by Prince Albert I of Monaco. The first tests took place on board the PRINCESS ALICE in 1894 off Morocco in 2782 meters water depth.
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Figure 17. Belknap and Sigsbee sounding device, designed by George Belknap on board the TUSCARORA in 1873-1874. This instrument, which was a modification of the Brooke sounder, was subsequently improved by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN, while in command of the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in 1878.
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Figure 18. Hopfgartner sounding device, invented by the Austrian Lieutenant France von Hopfgartner. No information has been found regarding tests and subsequent use of this instrument.
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Figure 19. Hirondelle locking sounder. Prince Albert I of Monaco designed this apparatus in 1888. His idea was to modify a Baillie or Travailleur sounder by replacing the various valves with a spigot which closed after sediment entered the tube. The engineer Jules le Blanc built this instrument for Prince Albert. It was used sucessfully in 1888 off the Azores in depths of 600 to 2000 meters.
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Figure 19 (cont.) Hirondelle locking sounder in the opened wide position.
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Figure 20. Lucas scoop sounder, invented in 1891 by Francis Lucas of the English Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, this instrument was also called the "snapper." It was used primarily by ships engaged in submarine cable laying. It is a derivative of the Ross device, with elements of the British bulldog sounder.
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Figure 21. Silvertown Company sounder, a device very similar to the Belknap- Sigsbee sounder with one important difference. This sounder had a unique ballast release method which involved a knife cutting the line holding the ballast upon beginning of ascent. This device was used in cable laying surveys.
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Figure 22. Driver depth sounding device. This sounder was used by the British Admiralty and was very simple to maintain and use. Little is known of its history; it is first listed in a catalog of instruments in 1896.
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Figure 23. Cable ship stopcock sounder. This instrument is saved in the Oceanographic Museum under this name. Its invention is attributed to Rendle in certain articles without precisely being able to know its history.
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Figure 24. Cable ship four-tube sounder. This device operates in a manner similar to the previous model, and there are no further details concerning its design or implementation.
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Figure 25. Bachmann penetration tubes. These instruments are not properly sounders, but an accessory for use with the instruments of the time. The bacteriologist Martin Bachman designed these tubes in order to elongate the real sounder tube and penetrate more deeply into the sediment. These tubes achieved deep penetration but little sample material. First used on VALDIVIA in 1898.
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Figure 26. The Leger dredge sounder in the descending position. This sampling device was designed to retain a portion of the captured sample even if a rock held the jaws open after being activated to snap shut. This sounder was tested twenty-two times in 1903 on the PRINCESS ALICE II between depths of 18 and 4560 meters.
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Figure 26 (cont.) The Leger dredge sounder after sampling and in the ascent mode. Note that the weights were retained on the instrument and not jettisoned on the seafloor.
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Figure 27. Ekman sounder, designed by Vagn W. Ekman in 1905. This instrument is similar to one designed by his father Fredrik L. Ekman in 1893 and to Magnaghi's sounder, described in 1891.
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Figure 28. Pasquion sounder invented by the Frenchman August Pasquion. This device was never featured in a publication; however, it was patented on June 26, 1906, by the National Office of Industrial Property. Its first ocean tests took place in 1905 and it was used by the French cable survey ships for at least the next fifteen years.
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Figure 29. Gilson sounder, described in 1906 by Gustave Gilson of the University of Louvain. He described a perfected scoop sounder which was similar to the Stellwagen sounder but contained a number of improvements for assuring a larger quantity of sediment obtained than with the earlier instrument. It was first tested in 1899 near Ostende off the coast of Belgium.
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Figure 29 (cont.) Gilson sounder with detail of the cover plate.
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Figure 30. Aime dredges -- small model on left, large model on right. These dredges were designed by Georges Aime, Professor of Physics at the College of Alger, in 1840 for the study of small quantities of sediment. They were not used as part of a depth-measuring system.
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Figure 31. Thoulet round dredge, designed by Julien Thoulet, professor at the University of Nancy, about 1897. Although tested aboard the Princess Alice in about 1901, it was not until 1909 that Thoulet tested his dredge in small lakes. That same year they were used in the Gulf of Gascogne on the PRINCESS ALICE II in depths up to 4600 meters.
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Figure 32 (left). Phleger corer devised by Fred B. Phleger of Scripps about 1951 for the study of the Foraminifera in deep water bottom samples. Phleger , previously of Amherst and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, used a similar device on the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition. The instrument on the right is attributed to Kullenberg (Figure 34).
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Figure 34. Brouardel corer invented by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet for measuring dissolved oxygen in ocean water at the seafloor. This instrument was devised and constructed by Jean Comelli at the instrument shop of the Oceanograp hic Museum at Monaco. It was tested on the EIDER off Monaco in 1953, at depths between 150 and 580 meters for the first model.
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Figure 35. Brouardel surface sampler, improvement of previous instrument, was designed by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet and constructed by Jean Comelli. This instrument was inspired by Bernard M. Jenkins' Surface Mud Sampler, created for the limnological studies of Clifford H. Mortimer. It was used to sample bottom water and sediment simultaneously. It was first tested off the EIDER in 1954.
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Figure 36. Ericsson pneumatic sounder, invented in 1835 by John Ericsson of USS MONITOR fame. This was among the first instruments to use the principle of pressure needed to compress air a given amount to derive the depth of water.
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Figure 37. Bucknill-Casella manometric sounder, invented by Lieutenant John T. Bucknill of the Royal Engineers of the Royal Navy in 1870 to mitigate problems with existing sounding systems. This sounder was based on Bourdon's tube, whose curvature varied as a function of the pressure difference between the interior and the fluid in which it was immersed. Louis P. Casella made the final product.
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Figure 38. Stahlberger rheobathometer, invented in 1873 by Emil Stahlberger to measure currents, measure depth, and collect deep water samples. It was first used on board the Austrian corvette MINERVA in 1873 in the Gulf of Fiume. The original device was made by Mathias Skull of Fiume, Austria. Several versions of this instrument were tested at various depths.
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Figure 39. Massey sounder, a propeller driven sounding device first developed in 1802 by Edward Massey. Many improvements were made to this device through the Nineteenth Century. The instrument in the image was created by Thomas Walke r in 1874. It consists of a propeller driven registering device which is fixed to a sounding line and weighted by ballast.
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Figure 40. Fol bathometer, designed by Hermann Fol who was a collaborator with Prince Albert I of Monaco. This instrument used the same principle as the Erics son sounder. Fol replaced water with mercury in order to determine the depth attained as a function of the quantity of liquid displaced by the pressure. Details concerning tests and effectiveness of this device are unknown.
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Figure 41. Thomson pneumatic sounder, devised by Sir William Thomson, was an extremely simple device designed for use with his sounding machine on a steel line. Although based on the action of pressure on gas or liquids, it also used the original concept of using a chemical means to note the depth attained.
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Figure 42. Hopfgartner and Arzberger sounder, devised by Lieutenant Franz von Hopfgartner of the Austrian Merchant Marine and Moriz Arzberger, a civil enginee r, this apparatus used the same principle as aneroid barometers which utilized the pressure difference between a wall, isolated or not, and the exterior medium . It was tested in 1876 in the Gulf of Trieste in depths up to 17 meters.
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Figure 43. Bergius pneumatic sounder. No documentation could be found for the design, construction, or testing of this instrument. It is probable that this instrument was created in the early Twentieth Century by Friedrich Bergius, a 1931 Nobel Prize winner, for study of high pressure chemical reactions.

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