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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 44. Bamberg pneumatic bathometer, constructed by Carl Bamberg. This instrument is in fact an accessory to a Bamberg sounder, which was similar to the Thomson sounder. It used the pressure of water to push a certain quantity of water into a tube and subsequently measuring it in order to determine the depth that the tube had attained.
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Figure 45. Rung bathometer, designed by Captain George Rung of the Danish Meteorological Institute. It was a new type of pneumatic sounding device based on the principle advanced by the physician Kristian Prytz, also a Dane. It was considered an advancement on the Thompson tube. Depending on modifications, it could be used from 0 to 200 meters, or from two to three times deeper.
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Figure 45 (cont.) Detail of mechanism of Rung bathometer.
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Figure 46. Shaeffer and Budenberg recording manometer, designed and built by the firm of Schaeffer and Budenberg. This was based on an instrument designed for use by a German expedition to Antarctica. This device was able to work to 1200 meters and was first tested by Doctor Brennecke on the German ship PLANET in the Indian Ocean in 1906.
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Figure 46 (cont.) Shaeffer and Budenberg recording manometer, mechanism above, recording graph below. The instrument is within an enclosed case which is acted upon by water pressure. An amplification mechanism transmits the displacement to a pen which records the corresponding depth on a gridded sheet.
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Figure 47. Sigsbee sounding machine, designed by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN. Sigsbee's sounding machine was constructed on the basis of the Thomson wireline sounding machine. The Sigsbee apparatus represents the first real industrial construction of such a device. It was the prototype for the majority of wireline machines subsequently invented and used.
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Figure 47 (cont.) Sigsbee sounding machine, designed by Lietenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN. Sigsbee designed this machine while in command of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE while operating in the Gulf of Mexico in 1874 and first used on the BLAKE in 1875.
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Figure 48. Lucas sounding machine, invented by Francis Lucas. Lucas began his career laying submarine cable in 1856. He subsequently became chief engineer at the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. He invented this lightweig t wire-sounding machine in 1878 and first used on the ALERT the same year. This type of machine was used by British hydrographic ships after 1887.
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Figure 49. Bamberg sounding machine, devised by Carl Bamberg as a modification of the Thomson piano-wire sounding machine. Thomson placed his model on the CHALLENGER but it was never successfully used there. It was the American vessel s TUSCARORA and BLAKE that ultimately proved the usefulness of wireline sounding .
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Figure 49 (cont.) Bamberg sounding machine, detail of accessory cupboard.
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Figure 49 (end). Bamberg sounding machine with accessory cupboard.
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Figure 50. Belloc sounding machine, invented by Emile Belloc. This machine was designed for raising water bottles and thermometers for studying the lakes of Pyrenee Mountains. It was subsequently used in a more robust form by Andre Delebecque on Lake Leman in 1891 and by Prince Albert I of Monaco off his ship in 1894.
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Figure 51. HIRONDELLE II sounding machine used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. This machine represented the evolution of a number of sounding machines used by Prince Albert I since first having a wireline machine installed on the HIRONDEL LE. The first machine was wound back in by hand, but subsequent models had stea m engines for winding in. The engineer Jules Le Blanc built these machines.
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Figure 51 (cont.) The HIRONDELLE II sounding machine used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. During the evolution of this machine, two important changes were made on the PRINCESS ALICE II which were used on this machine. The power was provide d by an electric motor, and the cable passed first through a winch before being wound on the reel. This machine kept the winch but returned to steam power.
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Figure 52. Thoulet sounder devised by Professor Julien Thoulet of the University of Nancy in 1908. This was a modification of the Belloc sounder that Professor Thoulet wished to make more portable and to have a lower cost. No information is available concerning the test and use of this machine.
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Figure 53. Berget sounding machine, designed by Professor Alphonse Berget of the Oceanographic Institute of Paris. Prince Albert I of Monaco presented this type of machine to the French Academy of Sciences in 1911. The machine was designed for use in depths from 0 to 2500 meters. This machine was unique for its compact size and strength.
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Figure 54. Aime's sounder release device, devised by Professor Georges Aime, professor of Physics, at the College of Alger. In 1841 Aime tested this device in the Mediterranean in the vicinity of Alger. It could be used for water sampling as well as sounding and was better known for the former use.
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Figure 55. Burt's nipper, invented by Peter Burt, a British ship builder, in 1818. It was used to keep the sounding line vertical in spite of the motion of the ship. It was used by the British Admiralty along with a device of the same type designed by Massey.
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Figure 56. Pecoul logging sounder, invented in 1849 by Master Mariner Adolphe Pecoul of Marseille. This device was used to measure measure depths while a vessel was underway or to be used as a speed logging device. It was tested in 1850. In spite of favorable reports from numerous ship captain, it was rejected by the Ministry of the Marine and Colonies.
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Figure 57. Puhler sounder, described by Christian Puhler in 1563, repeated an idea first put forth by Cardinal Nicholas Pusanus a century earlier. The principle, was to attach a float to a weight making it heavier than water. Upon striking bottom, the float would detach. Depth would be derived from round- trip travel time. It is unknown if this device was ever field tested.
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Figure 58. Albert sounder. The idea of Cardinal Cusanus, mentioned in the previous figure, was re-examined by the Italian architect Leo Battista Alberti and subsequentlydescribed by Giuseppe Biancani in 1635. The design was even simpler than Puhler's device. A simple rule of three was devised to derive the depth from the travel time to the bottom and return of the float.
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Figure 59. Hooke sounder devised by Robert Hooke, curator of experiments of the British Royal Society, also took up Cardinal Cusanus's idea. Like the preceding similar devices, the depth measured was obtained by comparison with the time required for the float to ascend from a known depth. This instrument was designed in 1663 and tested in 5 to 6 meters water depth.
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Figure 60. Joe Soundings sounder. This device was described in nautical magazine in 1832 by an individual with the pen name "Joe Soundings." It used a counter incremented by a propeller to measure the distance to the bottom. It is similar to the Massey sounder and Massey is sometimes cited as the inventor. There is no information concerning testing or use of this instrument.
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Figure 61. Electrosounder, used by the Italian Navy in 1954, employed a small explosive device which exploded on impact with the bottom and the sound subsequently was heard at a hydrophone on a ship. The use of explosives for depth finding was first suggested by a French engineer, Urbain Dortet de Tessan about 1850.
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Figure 62. Leger bathometer designed by the engineer Maurice Leger working in collaboration with Prince Albert I of Monaco. It was designed to measure small variations in the force of gravity and relate them to the depth of water.
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Figure 63. Marti's continuous recording sounder built by the French engineer Pierre Marti. In 1919, Marti began designing and describing sounding machines based on acoustic methods. This recording device allowed measuring time of sound emanation and time of reception, thus giving travel time which can be used to determine depth.
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Figure 63 (cont.) An example of a record from the Marti continuous recording sounder.
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Figure 64. Langevin Florisson echoscope built through collaboration of Professor Paul Langevin and Charles Florisson. This instrument was put into service in 1933 and used to measure shallow depths from small boats.
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Figure 64 (cont.) Projector unit for Langevin Florisson echoscope.
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Figure 65. Marconi electrolytic sounder - a Langevin-Touly electric recording sounder marketed by the Marconi Sounding Device Co. Ltd. which sold these instruments in Great Britain. The Langevin-Touly instrument was first marketed in 1935.
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Figure 66. Marconi echometer - a Langevin-Chilowsky echometer system presented at the Fourth Hydrographic Conference in Monaco under the name "Special Model for Hydrographic Studies and Shallow Water Soundings, Langevin-Chilowsky system. " This sounding system first became available in 1937.
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Figure 67. British Admiralty echo sounder, model MS X. In the 1930's the British Admiralty designed a magnetostrictive ultrasonic sounding device which subsequently led to the manufacture of magnetostrictive sounding systems by Hughes and Son Ltd.
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Figure 68. Magnetostrictive sounder model MS XII of the British Admiralty constructed by Hughes and Son Ltd. in 1937.
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Figure 69. Langevin quartz ultrasonic projector. This device was built in 1925 by the Society for Condensation and Mechanical Applications based on work by Paul Langevin. It was also distributed by the Marconi Company. It consisted of a piezo-electric emitter. No informatin exists concerning tests and use of this instrument.
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Catalog of the Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 6. "Thermometers" by Christian Carpine. Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography. Volume 76, 1997, No. 1442.
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Figure 1. Cavendish thermometer. Beginning in 1757 Lord Charles Cavendish, vice-president of the Royal Society, invented and described a number of thermome ters utilizing the principle of the dilatation of liquid. One of these was a " minimum" thermometer used to retain the minimum temperature observed. The liquid used was alcohol. It was first used by John Phipps on the RACEHORSE in 1773.
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Figure 2. Six's thermometer devised by James Six in 1782. Six devised maximum and minimum reading thermometers and in a posthumous publication (1794) suggeste d the adaptation of the maximum/minimum reading thermometers for use in the deep sea.
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Figure 3. Six's thermometer, 1782 model. A little different from the example in image ship 4282. These, like the previous example, were actually constructed in 1912 by Negretti and Zambra for displaying to the public at the Oceanographi c Museum.
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Figure 4. Aime' recording thermometer devised by the Frenchman George Aime' at the College of Algeria in 1845. This thermometer was an improvement over the Six's maximum and minimum thermometers and was designed for deployment in the deepest depths of the Mediterranean. He added two reservoirs for the mercury on the bottom to facilitate the mercury staying over the index.
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Figure 5. Aime' minimum temperature recording thermometer presented to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1844 and described by Aime' in 1845. This instrument differed little from the preceding but at a small point where the fluid enters into the reservoir. This is a reproduction by Negretti and Zambra in 1913.
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Figure 6. Aime' maximum temperature recording thermometer. This thermometer was constructed in 1913 as a facscimile of the earlier thermometer by Negretti and Zambra.
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Figure 7. Aime' minimum temperature recording thermometer. This thermometer was designed to be made to turn over at the desired depth and retain the minimal temperature reading at that depth while returning to the surface. Aime' is the originator of the concept of the reversing thermometer.
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Figure 8. Aime' maximum temperature recording thermometer. He described this instrument in 1845 and it operated in a similar manner to the minimum thermomete r.
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Figure 9. Walferdin maximum temperature thermometer a form of reversing thermom ter designed by Francois Walferdin, a French customs official who was responsibl e for in 1855.
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Figure 10. Protected Six thermometer constructed by Negretti and Zambra in 1857 . This type of thermometer protected the reservoir of mercury against the effec ts of pressure by having a second glass envelope which inhibited the heating effect of the pressure.
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Figure 10 (cont). Protected Six thermometer constructed by Negretti and Zambra in 1857 on its ebonite support.
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Figure 11. Six's thermometer, Miller and Casella, 1869 model. This thermometer was made at the request of Doctor William Miller, vice-presiden t of the Royal Society, and produced by the firm of Louis Casella. This thermometer was designed to resist the effects of pressure. This instrument was first used in May 1869.
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Figure 11 (cont). Six's thermometer, Miller and Casella, 1869 model. The thermometer is mounted on an ebonite support.
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Plate I. Modern reversing thermometers for use in the deep sea. I: Negretti and Zambra. II: F. C.Jacob. IIIa: V. Chabaud. IV: C. Richter.
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Figure 12. Negretti and Zambra thermometer, 1874 model. Although the principle of reversing was first described by George Aime' in 1845, this was the first thermometer to accurately determine the temperature at great depth and return to the surface and retain its readings. As such, it is considered the first modern reversing thermometer. It was used on the CHALLENGER expedition.

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