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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 13. Negretti and Zambra thermometer, 1878 model. This instrument is the direct ancestor of most reversing thermometers used up to this time. This was the first instrument to break the column of mercury after reversing to obtain the reading. It was entirely enclosed in a double envelope of glass to eliminate pressure effects.
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Figure 14. Negretti and Zambra thermometers, older models. These were reversing thermometers completely protected by an outer glass casing. This type of thermometer was manufactured from 1878 until 1912. The scales were graduate d in degrees and half-degree centigrade. Length of these thermometers was about 24 cm, diameter of reservoir about 1.1 cm, and diameter of tube about 1.3 cm.
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Figure 14 (cont). Negretti and Zambra thermometers, older models. These were reversing thermometers completely protected by an outer glass casing. This type of thermometer was manufactured from 1878 until 1912. The scales were graduated in degrees and half-degree centigrade. Temperature range of: 99 0034, -26 to 34C; 99 0044, -13 to 35C; 99 0047, -18 to 33C; 99 0052, -7 to 33C.
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Figure 15. Negretti and Zambra thermometers, 1912 models. In 1912 a new model of reversing thermometer was introduced which had a number of improvements that increased the sensitivity and accuracy of measurements including a scale that was graduated in 0.2C increments. These instruments had a smaller temperature range than the older instruments at the low end only reading to -2 to -3C.
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Figure 16. Certificate of examination certifying that the instruments had been tested at 3 tons pressure and the indicated corrections to readings thashould be used. These instruments were designed for use in polar areas and had temperature scales ranging from about -8C to 16C.
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Figure 17. Negretti and Zambra thermometers, 1926 models. These instruments are very similar to thermometers produced by Richter and Wiese in 1925 for the German METEOR expedition. Whether developed independently or copied, they are the same in all details.
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Figure 18. Protected Chabaud thermometers constructed by Victor Chabaud in 1892. Three left-most: mercury thermometers. Right: with copper powder.
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Figure 18 (cont). Certificate from the Central meteorological bureau with notes concerning the designated thermometers.
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Figure 18 (end). Chabaud thermometers. These thermometers were constructed by Victor Chabaud. The three left-most thermometers are in their protective glass envelopes while the two right-most are shown with the protective tube removed.
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Figure 19. Hemot thermometer constructed by Alphonse Hemot. Hemot was an instrument maker who made barometers but probably at the request of Prince Albert I of Monaco, he constructed reversing thermometers based on the Chabaud models. It is certain that these thermometers were used on board the PRINCESSE- ALICE II by 1902.
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Figure 20. Dumaige thermometer constructed by Paul Dumaige who was a long-time collaborator with the Prince of Monaco. Duimage was known for having constructe d the closing mechanism for a plankton net used by Albert I. It is not known whether this instrument was a copy of an existing instruments or if it was made to improve certain shortcomings. Two of them were used in 1892 at 4808 meters.
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Figure 21. Knudsen thermometer invented in 1896 by the Danish professor Martin Knudsen, this model was not much different than the Chabaud thermometer. This instrument was used in the second expedition of the INGOLF in 1896.
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Figure 22. Richter thermometer constructed by the German instrument maker Carl Richter following the suggestions of Fridtjof Nansen. Two of these were received in March 1901 and sent to Roald Amundsen for testing in Arctic waters. Although not a revolutionary design, this instrument had many improvements that were followed for tens of years.
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Figure 22 (cont). Richter thermometers constructed by the German instrument maker Carl Richter following the suggestions of Fridtjof Nansen. Two of these were received in March 1901 and sent to Roald Amundsen for testing in Arctic waters. Although not a revolutionary design, this instrument had many improvements that were followed for tens of years.
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Figure 22 (end). Richter thermometer with its examination certificate.
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Figure 22 (end). Correction information accompanying the certificate of examination and also information concerning the circumstances of testing.
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Figure 23. Kohler thermometers. These instruments were constructed by Fritz Kohler, who worked notably for the Wilhelm Ostwald Institute at Leipzig. He fabricated these models more or less following the design of Richter's thermometer.
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Figure 24. Vereinigte Fabriken fur Laboratoriumsbedarf thermometer, manufactured by the firm of the same name. Vereinigte Fabriken fur Laboratorium sbedarf was a manufacturing concern that made all sorts of instruments for laboratories and researchers. This type of thermometer was made in 1910 after the design of the Richter thermometer.
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Figure 25. Schmidt thermometer. These were of the Richter design. The firm of of Schmidt and Vossberg was founded in 1912 and fabricated these instruments upon its debut. Afterwards the company became named solely "Franz Schmidt" and all thermometers of either name are generally grouped under the name Schmidt.
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Figure 25 (cont). Examination certificate accompanying Schmidt and Vossberg thermometer dated 13 July, 1913.
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Figure 26. Richter and Wiese thermometer, protected model with its certificate of construction. The prototypes of this type of thermometer were used on the German METEOR expedition from 1925-1927.
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Figure 26 (cont). Certificate of construction for a Richter and Wiese protected thermometer.
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Figure 27. Richter and Wiese unprotected thermometer.
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Figure 27 (cont). Front of examination certificate for Richter and Wiese unprotected thermometer.
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Figure 27 (end). Front of examination certificate for Richter and Wiese unprotected thermometer.
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Figure 28. Gohla thermometer, an unprotected model. For many years the firm of Kurt Gohla made thermometers after the design of Richter and Wiese.
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Figure 29. Watanabe thermometer constructed by the Japanese firm Watanabe. This thermometer follows the Richter and Weise design which was used world-wide because of its precision and surety of results.
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Mercury thermometers in the collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. These thermometers were used on board the ships of Prince Albert 1st of Monaco.
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Figure 30. Fuess surface thermometer built by Rudolph Fuess of Berlin about 1900. This thermometer acted in the same way as an ordinary thermometer but was meant to be used for measuring the surface waters of the sea.
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Figure 31. Flat model surface thermometer. Although this thermometer is named "Richard thermometer" in the museum collections, this is probably an error. The accompanying certificate identifies it as being made by Fritz Kohler of the Ostwald Institute in 1910. It was probably meant to measure the temperature of water acquired with a surface sampling bucket.
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Figure 32. Richter surface thermometer, used for measuring the surface waters of the sea. This model was constructed in 1911 by Carl Richter in Berlin. Little is known as to when and where this instrument was tested and used. Undoubtedly it was meant to measure the temperature of water acquired with a surface sampling bucket.
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Figure 33. Meyer slow registering thermometer invented by Dr. Adolph Meyer and first used on the POMMERANIA in 1871 and then by various German scientific studies. It was used down to 50 meters but would stay submerged for about an hour to register the proper temperature because it was highly insulated.
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Figure 34. Thermometer used with Pettersson-Nansen insulation bottle. This bottle was a version of the Pettersson bottle with improvements made by Fridtjof Nansen in 1900. This thermometer was fixed to the inside cover of the bottle while a reversing thermometer was mounted on the outside. It was first tested on board the MICHAEL SARS in the Norwegian Sea in 3000 meters in 1900.
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Figure 35. Muller thermometer constructed by Gustav Muller for laboratory and research studies. It acted as a "normal" thermometer which was used with the Pettersson-Nansen insulation bottle. Because of the time for the temperature to equilibrate in the insulation bottle, the time to take a measurement was prolonged.
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Figure 36. Nansen thermometer for use with a water sampling bottle. This thermometer was conceived by Fridtjof Nansen in collaboration with Vagn W. Ekman . This was not a reversing thermometer but was used in an insulated bottle and then brought back to the surface for reading. It was tested on the FRITHJOF in 1910 at many hundreds of meters.
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Figure 37. Jacob thermometer devised by Martin Knudsen and constructed by Friedrich C. Jacob of Copenhagen. This thermometer was mounted inside an insula ted bottle that was lowered from an underway ship. This thermometer was of a classic design that had nothing particularly new.
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Figure 38. Knudsen thermometer devised by Martin Knudsen for use with an insulated water sampling bottle. Little is known about the testing or use of this thermometer.
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Figure 39. Knudsen thermometer constructed by the firm of Siebert and Kuhn. Little is known about this instrument.
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Figure 40. Aime's mechanism devised by Georges Aime in 1841 for triggering the release of water sampling bottles. Although the records of Aime's tests of this mechanism are not available, it seems that by using this mechanism that he was the first to take a series of water samples from bottles strung on the same cable at a number of different levels within the water column.
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Figure 41. Helical mounting mechanism of Negretti and Zambra. This mechanism was meant to cause the reversing thermometer of Negretti and Zambra to flip at the required depth. The helical screw would measure the depth on the way down and release the mounting at the desired depth. James Ferguson of the CHALLENGER modified this mechanism and tested it in the Sulu Sea at over 4000 meters
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Figure 42. Negretti and Zambra portable ballast mounting mechanism upon returning to the surface. This was designed to eliminate some problems associated with the mounting mechanism used on the CHALLENGER. This modificatio n was made in 1878 and is described in the scientific literature of the day..
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Figure 43. Magnaghi helical mounting devised by Giovanni Battista Magnaghi in 1881 near the end of his command of the Italian oceanographic expedition on the WASHINGTON. This mechanism was certainly inspired by the Sigsbee bottle mounting as well as the 1874 Negretti and Zambra water bottle mounting. The helical principle was used profitably by a many inventors and instrument makers.
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Figure 44. Magnaghi helical mounting (improved model.) This model resulted from the suggestion of Giovanni Battista Magnaghi to the London instrument maker s Negretti and Zambra, in 1881, to follow the ideas developed on the Italian navy ship WASHINGTON. Left: before reversing. Right: after reversing.
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Figure 45. Milne-Edwards mounting developed by Professor Alphonse Milne-Edwards for use with reversing thermometers on the TALISMAN scientific expedition of the French National Marine Administration in the North Atlantic in 1883. Two innovations were associated with this instrument. A slightly modified version of this mounting made by Paul Duimage was used on the HIRONDELLE.
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Figure 46. Rung mounting designed by Captain George Rung, an assistant at the Meteorological Institute of Denmark. In 1883 he described a new mechanism for releasing the reversing thermometers by means of a messenger system. With this system numerous bottles mounted on a cable could be released at various depths in series. Details of the original testing of this mechanism are unknown.
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Figure 47. Scotch messenger mounting invented by Hugh R. Mill who was inspired by the mounting devised by George Rung. Mill also incorporated design elements of the Magnaghi mounting. This instrument was first used in a series of observations from the ARK in 1884 in studies undertaken from the Scottish Marine Station at Granton.
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Figure 48. Scotch messenger mounting. Left: before reversing. Right: after reversing. This equipment was probably used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. The design is very similar to that used in the Magnaghi helical mounting, but instead used a messenger activating a lever to invert the reversing thermometer.
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Figure 49. Tanner helical mounting devised by Commander Zera Luther Tanner, USN , commanding officer of the U. S. Fish Commission Steamer ALBATROSS. It is very similar to other types of helical mountings in its design and operation. Tanner reported that it was relatively light but was very robust in operation.
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Figure 50. Luksch mounting and messenger system for inverting reversing thermometers. Invented by the Austrian Joseph Luksch and used during the scientific campaign of 1895-1896 on the POLA in the Mediterannean Sea and Red Sea.
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Figure 51. Pettersson universal apparatus designed by Otto Pettersson in 1904. This instrument sampled plankton and water, as well as measuring temperature, current velocity, and current direction. It was used for the first time in the Skaggerak and also in the Baltic Sea. The thermometer is placed in the horizont al cylinder shown at the back of the image.

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