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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 61. Nansen magnifying glass for reading thermometers. This magnifying glass was described in Plate 2, image ship4353. This magnifying glass differed little from that devised by Richter. This type of glass was commercialized about 1914.
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Plate 3. Clement metallic thermometer - cross sectional schematic of the model at the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. The model at the museum was constructed by Negretti and Zambra in 1912 after the original made in 1839 by Leander Clement, the clock maker of Rochefort. The thermometer functioned by comparing the expansion (or contraction) of two strips of different types of metal.
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Figure 62. Breguet-Saxton metallic thermometer first invented about 1817 by the instrument maker Louis Abraham Breguet. The first of this type was composed of platinum, silver, and gold with the silver placed in the center. Differential expansion of the metals provided the temperature measurement. In 1848, Joseph Saxton made a similar one for the U. S. Coast Survey but it was inaccurate.
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Figure 63. Clement metallic thermometer, first mentioned in 1839 by the clock- maker of Rochefort, Leandre Clement. This thermometer functioned by the differential contraction or expansion of two strips of differing metals. They were soldered together in a spiral form. Left is the total assembly while above right is the indicating dial.
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Figure 64. Richard registering thermometer for use in great depths. This instrument recorded depths obtained by a bimetallic strip and was mounted in a water-tight caisson. Upper: registering device. Middle: recording paper. Bottom: water-tight caisson for protecting and housing the instrument. This instrument was first constructed between 1882 and 1891.
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Figure 65. Bounhiol thermometer register, used to record temperatures in an enclosed caisson lowered to depths. This instrument was devised by Jean -Paul Bounhiol, Professor at the higher school of sciences at Algiers, in 1908. He tested it at about 60 meters water depths in the vicinity of Algiers.
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Figure 65 (cont.) Recording paper used with Bounhiol thermometer register.
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Figure 66. Negretti and Zambra thermometer recorder. This instrument was developed in 1920 and was actuated by the principle of expansion and contraction of mercury in a Bourdon tube. Above: recording device. Bottom: sensor and conducting unit.
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Figure 67. The bathythermograph first conceived by Athelstan Spilhaus in 1936 and produced in 1937. This instrument measured a continuous profile of sea- temperature versus depth. It was the prototype of many types of instruments used either for studies of physical oceanography or for use by the undersea warfare community.
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Figure 67 (cont.) The recording of temperature versus pressure on the bathythermograph was done by etching a trace on smoked glass for reading upon recovery of the instrument at the observing vessel.
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Figure 68. Various models of Richard bathythermographs. These instruments are similar to the Spilhaus bathythermograph and were used between 1962 and 1967 by the firm of Jules Richard.
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Figure 69. Expendable bathythermograph made by Sippican Corporation. These instruments pay out a copper wire upon descent that has varying conductivity as the temperature changes. Depth is determined as a function of the rate of descent of the instrument. These are used by ships while underway to determine the temperature profile of the water column and corresponding velocity profile.
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Figure 70. Temperature sensor for deep water. This instrument was made by Crouzet Society of Valence, France and constructed by SAFARE-CROUZET. This was an early version of a CTD instrument in which temperature information was transmitted up a cable to a recording device. The pressure vessel protecting the sensor was rated to about 3,000 meters water depth.
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Catalog of the Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 7. "Miscellaneous Instruments, Deck Equipment, Laboratory Instruments, " by Christian Carpine. Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography. Volume 76, 1998, No. 1443.
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Plate I. Aime apparatus for the study of oceanic wave motion at depth described by Georges Aime in 1845. Aime should be considered as the predecessor of modern oceanography as he designed and created many innovative oceanographic measuring and analysis instruments that were models for those who followed. He was a professor at the University of Algiers.
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Figure 1. Model of Aime's first wave study instrument, built in 1838 and tested in the anchorage at Algiers the same year at depths of 11 and 18 meters. A wood top furnished with fixed points in the center of a sheet of lead and tilted by the movement of the water left markings in the metal which were compared to observations made at the surface.
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Figure 2. Display model of Aime's second wave study instrument built in 1839 and tested in the anchorage at Algiers in 40 meters water depth for one month. This gave negative results even during periods of poor weather. The device weighed nearly 200 pounds.
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Figure 3. Model of Aime's instrument for the study of lateral movement of waves and the movement of particles within the waves, built and tested at the anchorage at Algiers in 1839 in depths of 10 and 14 meters in waves up to 1.5 meters in height.
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Figure 4. Stevenson dynanometer, designed by the Scotch engineer Thomas Stevenson in 1843. This instrument measured the pressure exerted by waves on a vertical surface. He used this instrument to measure the pressure of waves at the lighthouse at Skerryvore where pressures close to 30 tons per square meter were observed.
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Figure 5. An Aime tide gauge. Aime's tidal studies began at the port of Algiers in 1838. Aime designed a prismatic lead tube supported by wood and provided with a filtering mechanism at its base that attenuated wave motion. A wood float connected to a counterweight by a silk cord, indicated the level of the sea on a reverse graduated scale which was calibrated on a calm day.
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Figure 6. A tide meter or scale which was easily placed in areas where water level and observations of its changes were desired. Apparently this type of instrument was first used in the United States. One could make as observations during the day as required.
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Figure 7. Autonomous ultrasonic tide recorder. This instrument was mounted on the bottom and emitted sound waves that reflected off the water surface. As the water level changed, the instrument would record the apparent changes in depth. This instrument was developed for Crouzet Marine Oceanology Corporation from a prototype developed by the Studies and Research Department of France Electric.
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Plate 2. Piezometers used by John Buchanan on the CHALLENGER. On the right is a mercury piezometer and on the left is a water piezometer. Piezometers are devices used to measure the compressibility of liquids.
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Figure 8. Nepyric Turbidity Measurement Instrument. The Nepyric Corporation was involved for many years with studying numerous types of sediment samplers designed to retrieve suspended solids in flowing water, retained by dams, or in marine zones. One of these models was implemented in 1948 by Jean Serpaud and used for river sediment sampling.
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Figure 9. Buchanan piezometer (Water Model). John Buchanan was responsible for the systematic use of various apparatus for the study of sea water and its properties during the CHALLENGER Expedition. To that end, he invented and deployed numerous piezometers including this one that was tested March 6, 1876, in the south Atlantic at Lat. 37 S, Long. 43 W.
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Figure 10. Buchanan mercury piezometer - the second type of piezometer made by John Buchanan during the CHALLENGER Expedition. Like the preceding model, this type had thermometers which remained open to the hydrostatic pressure of the sea at the depth deployed. Buchanan credited Aime with this idea and used this instrument to study the compressibility of mercury.
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Figure 11. Buchanan mercury piezometer (VORINGEN model) - This piezometer was designed by Henrik Mohn who was inspired by Buchanan's earlier CHALLENGER design. Mohn had this instrument fabricated by Louis Casella and used it to determine depths of observation of Negretti and Zambra reversing thermometers used during the Norwegian VORINGEN expedition in 1877-1878.
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Figure 12. Buchanan piezometers (PRINCESS ALICE models) - These newer models were used on the PRINCESS ALICE II by their designer, John Y. Buchanan in 1902. The first test of these instruments was on July 31st, 1902 in 2589 meters at Lat . 37 31 00N, Long. 24 54 15 W. Subsequently readings were made as deep as 5943 meters.
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Figure 13. Ekman piezometer - In 1904 Vagn Walfrid Ekman of Switzerland, a member of the Central Laboratory of Christiana, was tasked with studying the compressibility of sea water in relation to salinity and temperature. He devise d a new model of piezometer, first used in 1905 and first described in 1908. It s most important readings were from the PRINCESS ALICE II in 1906.
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Figure 14. Ekman piezometer (laboratory model) - In parallel with measurements made in the sea deployed from the PRINCESS ALICE, Vagn Ekman devised a piezometer for use in the laboratory which he most probably used at Christiana at the Central Laboratory using methods recommended by Thomas William Richards.
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Figure 15. An oxygen probe - This device is much more modern than those examine d previously. Two electrodes form a galvanic chain with the sea water in which they are immersed. the current measured depends on the diffusion of oxygen released under an electrode. This instrument was manufactured commercially by the German firm Harmann and Braun in about 1957.
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Figure 16. The autonomous oceanographic measuring device. The Crouzet firm developed this instrument after a study at the Naval Weapons Laboratory. It was used to determine temperature, pressure, and velocity of currents. It was deployed from the surface and then sunk to the bottom. Upon returning to the surface, it would transmit its observations to a surface vessel.
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Plate 3. Using the Hodges shock absorber in order to bring a dredge trawl back aboard H. M. S. PORCUPINE [after Sir Wyville Thomson, 1873.]
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Figure 17. Model of the HIRONDELLE's winch. From the beginnings of Prince Albert I of Monaco's oceanographic explorations, he became occupied with equipping his vessels with basic indispensable deck equipment and tools includin g winches, reels of cable, etc. He gave the engineer Jules LeBlanc responsibili ty for this but became a principle collaborator in this area.
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Figure 18. Model of the HIRONDELLE's small reel - another device probably made by Jules Le Blanc.
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Figure 19. Model of the HIRONDELLE's large reel - another device probably made by Jules Le Blanc.
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Figure 20. A Nansen counting pulley - used to determine the length of cable reeled out on an oceanographic station.
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Figure 21. Model of Hodge's shock absorber or accumulator. This device was invented in 1852 by Richard Edward Hodges. It was used to aid in launching and retrieving heavy objects suspended from cables or ropes, particularly when a vessel is subject to motion if the seas are high. It was first used in oceanographic work off H. M. S. HYDRA in 1867.
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Figure 22. The BLAKE shock absorber. This device also used the principle of the elasticity of rubber to absorb the shocks incurred on a cable or line when launching or retrieving heavy objects at sea. This device was first used in the winter of 1878-1879 on the Coast and Geodetic Ship BLAKE while under the scientific direction of Alexander Agassiz.
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Figure 23. The HIRONDELLE enclosed spring dynanometer. This type of shock absorber employed a metallic spring instead of rubber, which was fragile and alterable. It was designed and built by Jules LeBlanc following the suggestion of Prince Albert I of Monaco. It was first used in 1888 on the HIRONDELLE and for many subsequent years and scientific campaigns.
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Figure 24. A spring shock absorber. No information is available concerning the inventor or the use of this device.
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Figure 25. A roller guide, devised by Jules Le Blanc following a suggestion of Prince Albert I of Monaco. Used to minimize chance of tangling cables during oceanographic operations.
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Figure 26. Ball bearing swivels devised by Jules Le Blanc to prevent untimely twisting of cables, getting them caught on hull projections, or even breaking of lines.
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Figure 27. The Aime Olive, a large weight attached to the cable immediately before a bottom dredging device. This weight would keep the dredge in contact with the bottom. Although used by fishermen prior to its oceanographic use, Aime's adaptation of this concept apparently marked its first use in oceanography. Circa 1840.
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Figure 28. Lead weights used to depress the front of a net or trawl being dragged across the bottom.
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Figure 29. Dredging harrows used to stir up the bottom in order to capture the small crustaceans and other creatures that lived there. This instrument was fabricated at the Oceanographic Museum in 1939.
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Figure 30. Nansen releasing devices used for closing plankton nets. This device was invented by Fridthof Nansen about 1900 and apparently used aboard the MICHAEL SARS. A messenger activated this mechanism which in turn "strangled" the net by closing off its open end and capturing the fauna in the net.
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Figure 31. Aime messenger ca. 1843. The Frenchman Georges Aime was among the fir st to systematically employ the principle of a messenger in order to communicate with submerged instruments. The messenger was sent down the line and activated some form of opening or closing mechanism on the sampling instrument. Aime used only solid messengers which had to have the line or cable run through them.
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Figure 32. Enjalbal messenger, fabricated by Louis Enjalbal, a mechanic on the PRINCESS ALICE, in 1906.
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Figure 33. Riva messenger, fabricated by Paul Riva, the mechanic on the EIDER, a small research vessel operated by the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco in the early 1900's.

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