NOAA Photo Library Banner
Takes you to the Top Page Takes you to the About this Site page. Takes you to the Contacts page. Takes you to the HELP page. Takes you to the Credits page. Takes you to the Collections page. Takes you to the search page. Takes you to the Links page.


Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

18700 thumbnail picture
Figure 51. Coupled bottle floats devised by Alfred Hautreux in 1893 for the study of currents in the Gulf of Gascogne. These bottles were deployed from various naval vessels in 1893 and 1894.
18701 thumbnail picture
Figure 52. Floats used by the Oceanographic Society of the Gulf of Gascogne in 1901 and deployed by the ship BRESIL. This work was done under instructions by Prince Albert I of Monaco.
18702 thumbnail picture
Figure 52 (continued). Instructions to finders of the floats used by the Oceano graphic Society of the Gulf of Gascogne. These instructions were used by the packet boat CHILE in 1905.
18703 thumbnail picture
Figure 52 (end). Instructions to finders of the floats used by the Oceanographi c Society of the Gulf of Gascogne. These instructions were used by the steamer l'ANDRE'E in 1906.
18704 thumbnail picture
Figure 53. A bottom float for studying currents in closed basins of small extent used by the Copenhagen Hydrographic Laboratory. Left:float. Right: message. This float was first conceived by George P. Bidder with the aid of the Marine Biological Association of Plymouth, U. K., and first used from the HUXLEY in 1904 when 390 were launched in the North Sea.
18705 thumbnail picture
Figure 54. A float used by the Oceanographic Society of San Sebastien and deployed from the vessel MAMELENA in 1911 in the vicinity of San Sebastien. Left: float device. Right: included message as written in Spanish, French, and English.
18706 thumbnail picture
Figure 55. A coupled sinking float for use on the high sea devised by Julien Thoulet in 1896. This is the original model that was never tested at sea.
18707 thumbnail picture
Catalog of Oceanographic Equipment Contained in the Collection of the Museum of Oceanography of Monaco. 3. "Biological sampling apparatus" by Christian Christian Carpine. Bulletin de l'Institute Oceanographique, Vol. 74, No. 1438. 1991.
18708 thumbnail picture
Plate I. A Richard vertical net after return to the surface in 1908.
18709 thumbnail picture
Figure 1. A Cori net, devised by the Austrian Carl Cori at the Trieste zoological station in 1899. This net was used for a variety of studies , primarily depending on the size of the mesh of the net. This net was first tested in the Adriatic near Trieste.
18710 thumbnail picture
Figure 2. A large Cori bathypelagic net. Left: view of the net. Right: the biologic sample recovery unit. This unit was designed and built about the same time as the preceding net.
18711 thumbnail picture
Figure 3. Petersen's net for young fish devised by C. G. Johan Petersen in 1902. Left: view of the net. Right: view of the connectors. This net was designed to capture the young of commercial species for further study. It was tested about 1902 at the Small Belt on board the SALLINGSUND, the ship of the Danish biological station
18712 thumbnail picture
Figure 4. Biological sample recovery unit for use with Cepede net. Invented by Casimir Cepede at the Wimereux zoological station in 1907. The first test of this instrument was probably near Wimereux (in the vicinity of Dunkirk) at about the time of its invention.
18713 thumbnail picture
Figure 5. The large Bouree bathypelagic net invented by Henry Bouree and used on the PRINCESS ALICE II in 1910. This vertical sampling net was tested in 1910 between the depths of 0 and 4900 meters off the coast of Spain. It was meant to capture pelagic animals from the greatest depths of the sea.
18714 thumbnail picture
Figure 6. De Guerne bucket biologic sample recovery unit devised by Baron Jules De Guerne about 1893. a collaborator with Prince Albert I of Monaco. Use of this instrument depended on which type of net was used and how long the tow. It is almost certain that this instrument existed in this form by 1893.
18715 thumbnail picture
Figure 7. Isaacs-Kidd trawling net for intermediate depths. Devised by John D. Isaacs and Lewis W. Kidd from Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1950. above shows the net at the point of immersion. This net was meant to capture very large animals of very great speed. This net was successfully tested at more than 1000 meters water depth off California in 1950.
18716 thumbnail picture
Figure 7 (continued.) Plan of the original model of the Isaacs-Kidd trawling net.
18717 thumbnail picture
Figure 8. Plan of the original model of the WP3 trawling net as recommended by working group Number 3 of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research in 1966. This net was meant to capture large plankton. It was afterwards tested by several laboratories and found to have many shortcomings such as inefficienci es in capturing fish larvae and in the opening of its mouth.
18718 thumbnail picture
Figure 9. Cone for use with Hensen conical net. Invented by Victor Hensen of the University of Kiel in about 1883. He called this invention " Korbnetz." In 1901 he described an improved version that contained a tin-plate envelope. Between these dates, an intermediate form of this net and cone was used in the course of the Plankton Expedition of 1889.
18719 thumbnail picture
Figure 10. Cylinder for use with Hensen cylindrical surface-towed net at about the same time as the cone mentioned previously. This net, for qualitative collecting
18720 thumbnail picture
Figure 11. Meter for use with Buchet plankton net, devised by Gaston Buchet in 1892. Left: front view. Right: side view. This instrument was designed to capture pelagic animals while being towed at a relatively high rate of speed. It was tested off Iceland in 1892 and also used in a number of expeditions of Prince Albert I of Monaco.
18721 thumbnail picture
Figure 12. Borgert net devised by Dr. Adolph Borgert of Hamburg in 1893. Having found the Hensen and Buchet nets too heavy, too complicated, and difficult to manage, and too expensive, Dr. Borgert designed this net for collecting plankton at the surface at high speed. This net was first tested from the steamer BARCELONA between Hamburg and the western Mediterranean.
18722 thumbnail picture
Figure 13. Richard narrow-ended net. Left: simple model. Right: model with deflector. Invented in 1903 by Doctor Jules Richard, this net combined extreme lightness with ease of making as well as a great facility for use by a ship underway. The prototype of this net was constructed on the PRINCESSE-ALICE II. Prince Albert I used this for thousands of plankton sampling tows from 1903 on.
18723 thumbnail picture
Figure 14. Apstein plankton tube. Above: Top view. Below: bottom view. Invented by Carl Apstein who had been studying lake fauna. Apstein collaborated with Hensen to work in the Baltic and North Seas. Apstein perceived quickly that methods of work would have to vary considerably from lake work and made thi s instrument for collecting small plankton under difficult conditions.
18724 thumbnail picture
Figure 15. Zacharias ethmophore plankton filter devised by Otto Zacharias in 1907. Top: view of the assembled apparatus. Bottom: internal speed reduction valve. This instrument was devised to collect plankton under adverse meteorolog ical conditions where normal net-towing operations became impossible. This inst rument was first used in a lake, but then in the Mediterranean and Tyrhennian.
18725 thumbnail picture
Figure 16. Monti net tube devised by Madame Rina Monti of the University of Sassari in Sardinia. Top: the assembled unit. Middle: the internal net. Bottom: series of diaphrams used in the unit. This net and tube system were meant to improve shortcomings found in various other surface plankton sampling systems and was first tested off the coast of Sardinia in 1911.
18726 thumbnail picture
Figure 17. Hyponeuston net for capturing life in the top 5 centimeters of the water column. This net was devised by Yuvenalii P. Zaitsev of the biological station at Odessa and meant to capture plankton from the very top of the water column. The top of the net was actually half out of the water when being towed while the bottom skimmed the surface. First made in 1959.
18727 thumbnail picture
Figure 18. Net closure device invented by Baron Jules De Guerne and Paul Dumaig e and first tested in the east Atlantic in 1886 in 31 meters waters depth. Left: closed. Right: open.
18728 thumbnail picture
Figure 19. Closing device for Chun and Petersen net first devised by Giuseppe Palumbo, commanding officer of the VETTOR PISANI. In the course of its around the world oceanographic cruise of 1882-1885, the idea to develop a helical clos ing device for a towed plankton net was developed. Prince Albert I of Monaco adapted this idea to a vertical net during the expedition of 1887.
18729 thumbnail picture
Figure 20. Horizontal shutter plankton net first invented by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1889. Left: view of the assembled unit. Right: the messenger to trigger operation of the unit. This net would be lowered to a specified depth and then a messenger sent down the line to open it and capture drifting fauna at depth. This was first tested by Prince Albert I off Madeira in 1889.
18730 thumbnail picture
Figure 21. Universal sampling apparatus invented by Otto Pettersson in 1904. This instrument measured temperature, the velocity and direction of the current, and also collected plankton. Pettersson first tested this instrument in 1904 in the Skagerrak and Baltic Sea. Left: in descent. Center: deployed. Right: on the ascent.
18731 thumbnail picture
Figure 21 (continued.) Detail of the device which connects the end of the net with the wire. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
18732 thumbnail picture
Figure 22. The Thor ring-trawl net used in deep water. Devised by Johannes Schmidt in 1905 and used for carrying out studies on board the THOR. This net was used to capture fish in very deep water. It was first tested in waters between 1040 and 1090 meters depth off SW Ireland. The ring was originally made in one piece but George Hansen designed it in two to allow it to fold up.
18733 thumbnail picture
Figure 23. Kofoid net devised by Charles A. Kofoid of the University of Califor nia at Berkeley in 1909. Above: in the functioning position. Lower left: in descent. Lower right: upon ascent. This net sampling system was meant to guarantee the verticality of the cable and sampling at the exact depth desired. It was tested off San Diego in 1909 at 1000 meters depth.
18734 thumbnail picture
Figure 24. Clarke-Bumpus plankton gathering device. Invented in 1939 by George L. Clarke of Harvard University and Dean F. Bumpus of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This device was used on the Atlantis. Top: view of the apparatus. Middle: view of the apparatus with net on frame. Lower left: rear view of the device's mouth. Lower right: plankton recovery unit.
18735 thumbnail picture
Figure 25. Net WP2 as recommended by working group Number 2 of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research in 1966. Plan of the net on left. Specimen collector on the right. This net was meant to collect zooplankton from the upper 200 meters of the water column. It was first tested by Paul Smith of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in the NE Pacific in 1966.
18736 thumbnail picture
Figure 26. Sigsbee gravity driven plankton trap. Devised by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee of the USN on the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE in 1880. It was meant to collect live specimens of plankton between precisely specified depths. It was first tested on the Blake between 9 and 45 meters in 1880.
18737 thumbnail picture
Figure 27. Frame for Chun and Hensen quantitative net closing mechanism. Left: view of the unit. Above: detail view.
18738 thumbnail picture
Figure 28. Biological sampling device of Apstein net circa 1891. The net and system of this device was designed for fresh-water lake studies. This net was derived from the studies of Victor Hensen on quantitative methods of studying the sea. It was first tested in the Stettiner Haff in 1892.
18739 thumbnail picture
Figure 29. Marsh net devised by C. Dwight Marsh in 1893. Left: view of the apparatus before closing. Upper right: view of the closed mechanism. Lower right: detail of the closing mechanism. This net was used for plankton sampling in lakes. It was first tested in Green Lake, Wisconsin, U. S. A., in 1893.
18740 thumbnail picture
Figure 30. Closing device of the Apstein closing net. Left: open. Right: closed. Devised by Carl Apstein in 1903 and used in the North Sea. This was used for quantitative plankton studies and was first used in the North Sea in 1903.
18741 thumbnail picture
Figure 31. Vertical net devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1903 and used on the PRINCESSE-ALICE II in the Bay of Quiberon for quantitative sampling of plankton the same year.
18742 thumbnail picture
Figure 32. Plankton bottle devised by James I. Peck of Williams College, Massachusetts, and Nathan R. Harrington of Columbia University, New York, in 1896. It was used to collect plankton, both animal and vegetable, at various depths. It was first used in 1896 at the entrance to Puget Sound, Washington, at 5 levels up to 205 meters depth.
18743 thumbnail picture
Figure 33. Kofoid plankton sampling bucket devised by Charles A. Kofoid of the University of California at Berkeley in 1905. It was used on board the vessel LOMA out of San Diego. This bottle was used to acquire a volume of water in which the plankton would be counted for quantitative studies of life in the sea. This instrument closely resembled a Pettersson bottle.
18744 thumbnail picture
Figure 34. Brouardel simple bottle for sampling the organic productivity of the sea. Devised by Jean Brouardel of the Oceanographic Institute of Paris and Emile Rinck of the Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Paris in 1956. Left: open. Right: closed. This sampling method followed the type developed by Steeman Nielsen.
18745 thumbnail picture
Figure 35. Double automatic sampling bottle of Brouardel devised by Jean Brouardel and Emile Rinck in 1958. This bottle was used to measure organic productivity in the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity of Monaco on board the WINNARETTA-SINGER. Left: open. Right: closed. This bottle was desi gned for in situ measurement of phytoplankton by the Carbon-14 method.
18746 thumbnail picture
Figure 36. Double sampling bottle of Brouardel. Left: open. Right: closed. This type of bottle was used in 1959 for measuring organic productivity in the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity of Monaco on board the WINNARETTA-SINGER in the vicinity of Monaco in 1959. This bottle was designed for in situ measurement of phytoplankton by the Carbon-14 method.
18747 thumbnail picture
Figure 37. Falconetti and Vaissiere turning net devised by Raymond Vaissiere and Claude Falconetti of the University of Nice in 1972. Top: the equipment. Bottom: in operating position. This net was designed to capture plankton and the larvae of benthic species at a small distance off the bottom. It was able to stay under water for prolonged periods and easy to use.
18748 thumbnail picture
Figure 38. Fischer bacterial sampling device invented by Doctor Bernhard Fischer of the University of Kiel in 1894. He described this instrument in the reports of the Plankton-Expedition. It functioned with the aid of a helical screw for closing.
18749 thumbnail picture
Figure 39. Portier and Richard microbe sampling bottle invented by Doctor Paul Portier of the Laboratory of Physiology of the Faculty of Sciences, Paris, and Doctor Jules Richard, director of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco in 1902. It was a great improvement over preceding models and gave very pure samples. It was tested between 1000 and 3000 meters depth off the Azores in 1902

PAGES - 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107 | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119 | 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 | 126 | 127 | 128 | 129 | 130 | 131 | 132 | 133 | 134 | 135 | 136 | 137 | 138 | 139 | 140 | 141 | 142 | 143 | 144 | 145 | 146 | 147 | 148 | 149 | 150 | 151 | 152 | 153 | 154 | 155 | 156 | 157 | 158 | 159 | 160 | 161 | 162 | 163 | 164 | 165 | 166 | 167 | 168 | 169 | 170 | 171 | 172 | 173 | 174 | 175 | 176 | 177 | 178 | 179 | 180 | 181 | 182 | 183 | 184 | 185 | 186 | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 | 192 | 193 | 194 | 195 | 196 | 197 | 198 | 199 | 200 | 201 | 202 | 203 | 204 | 205 | 206 | 207 | 208 | 209 | 210 | 211 | 212 | 213 | 214 | 215 | 216 | 217 | 218 | 219 | 220 | 221 | 222 | 223 | 224 | 225 | 226 | 227 | 228 | 229 | 230 | 231 | 232 | 233 | 234 | 235 | 236 | 237 | 238 | 239 | 240 | 241 | 242 | 243 | 244 | 245 | 246 | 247 | 248 | 249 | 250 | 251 | 252 | 253 | 254 | 255 | 256 | 257 | 258 | 259 | 260 | 261 | 262 | 263 | 264 | 265 | 266 | 267 | 268 | 269 | 270 | 271 | 272 | 273 | 274 | 275 | 276 | 277 | 278 | 279 | 280 | 281 | 282 | 283 | 284 | 285 | 286 | 287 | 288 | 289 | 290 | 291 | 292 | 293 | 294 | 295 | 296 | 297 | 298 | 299 | 300 | 301 | 302 | 303 | 304 | 305 | 306 | 307 | 308 | 309 | 310 | 311 | 312 | 313 | 314 | 315 | 316 | 317 | 318 | 319 | 320 | 321 | 322 | 323 | 324 | 325 | 326 | 327 | 328 | 329 | 330 | 331 | 332 | 333 | 334 | 335 | 336 | 337 | 338 | 339 | 340 | 341 | 342 | 343 | 344 | 345 | 346 | 347 | 348 | 349 | 350 | 351 | 352 | 353 | 354 | 355 | 356 | 357 | 358 | 359 | 360 | 361 | 362 | 363 | 364 | 365 | 366 | 367 | 368 | 369 | 370 | 371 | 372 | 373 | 374 | 375 | 376 | 377 | 378 | 379 | 380 | 381 | 382 | 383 | 384 | 385 | 386 | 387 | 388 | 389 | 390 | 391 |


Publication of the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA),
NOAA Central Library
NOAA Privacy Policy | NOAA Disclaimer
Last Updated:
November 10, 2017