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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

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Figure 29. An unidentified water sampling bottle. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 30. High pressure bottle devised by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1890. The manometer was set in place after the bottle's return from the deep ocean in order to measure the pressure of the water sample. This bottle was used for collecting water samples at depth and returning them to the surface at the ambient water pressure at the depth of the sample.
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Figure 31. Timtschenko water bottle, inspired by the Wille bottle, and built by the instrument maker Iosif A. Timtschenko for sampling waters of the Black Sea and analyzing for dissolved hydrogen sulfide content. This instrument was built in 1891 and used by Joseph B. Spindler in his studies of the Black Sea. The interior was of gold to resist corrosion. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 32. Regnard bottle invented by Professor Paul Regnard, deputy director of the Experimental Physiology Laboratory at the Sorbonne, in 1890. Left: descending. Right: ascending. The top balloon is missing in these views. This instrument was used to water depths of about 100 meters.
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Figure 33. The model of Buchanan water bottle used on the PRINCESSE ALICE in 1892. John Buchanan brought a number of these bottles aboard that were used with mixed results. One bottle was destroyed at 1500 meters depth. Left: during descent. Right: during ascent.
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Figure 34. Richard mercury bottle shown with the apparatus in the closed position. This apparatus was specially designed by Dr. Jules Richard for use on board the PRINCESSE ALICE in 1896. It sampled water for studying the condition s for the dissolution of gases at various depths. It was used between 1000 and 2700 meters at 3 stations.
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Figure 35. Hamberg bottle for sampling intermediate waters devised by Doctor Alex Hamberg at the Institute of Meteorology of the Hogskola at Stockholm in 1898. It was taken on the ANTARCTIC by the Swedish scientist Alfred G. Nathorst and used about Spitzbergen and to the north of Norway. Left: descending. Right: ascending. It sampled both water and temperature.
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Figure 36. Deep water Hamberg bottle devised by Doctor Alex Hamberg at the Institute of Meteorology of the Hogskola at Stockholm in 1898 for use by the Swedish polar expedition on board the ANTARCTIC in 1898. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 37. Nansen double bottle invented by Fridtjof Nansen for taking two simultaneous samples. He used these bottles in the Norwegian Sea in 1900 and 1904. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 38. Pettersson and Nansen water bottle for obtaining water and temperature observations. This type of bottle had concentric layers of insulating material for keeping the samples at the temperature at which it was obtained. This type of bottle was used by Nansen on the FRAM in 1893 and also used in 1900 on the MICHAEL SARS in the Norwegian Sea.
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Figure 39. Schematic drawing of Pettersson and Nansen bottle as shown by V. W. Ekman in 1905.
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Figure 40. Seligo bottle used to sample a few centimeters below the surface and to avoid floating debris. This was designed in about 1900 by Arthur Seligo. This example was made by Max Marx in 1912.
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Figure 41. Richard bottle, helical model invented by Doctor Jules Richard in 1902. The helical system eliminated the need for a messenger system for inverting the bottle at the desired depth. This type of bottle was used on the PRINCESSE ALICE II in 1902 at a depth of 1870 meters in the Mediterranean Sea. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 42. Richard bottle, messenger model showing messenger on the line. Designed by Doctor Jules Richard in 1902 and used on the PRINCESSE ALICE II. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 43. A modified Richard messenger bottle designed to improve the action of the messenger in inverting the bottle. Commercial manufacture of this type of bottle began in 1911 by Max Marx.
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Figure 44. Water sampling bottles developed by the Central Laboratory at Christiana by Doctor Vagn Ekman, the son of the inventor of the insulation water sampling bottle. The bottle shown is the lateral model. Left: descending. Right: ascending. These bottles were designed in 1902.
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Figure 45. Water sampling bottles developed by the Central Laboratory at Christiana by Doctor Vagn Ekman, the son of the inventor of the insulation water sampling bottle. The bottle shown is the "end of cable" model. Left: descending. Right: ascending. These bottles were designed in 1902.
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Figure 46. Automatic Nansen and Ekman water sampling bottle developed by the Central Laboratory at Christiana by Doctor Vagn Ekman and Fridtjof Nansen. Left: descending. Right: ascending. This type of bottle was used by Nansen in 1910 on board the gunboat FRITHJOF and was used through many hundreds of meters of water depth.
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Figure 47. Schematic drawing of the Nansen and Ekman automatic water sampling bottle as shown by V. W. Ekman in 1905.
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Figure 48. Pettersson universal sampling apparatus devised by the Swedish Professor Otto Pettersson. This instrument would sample plankton, measure the temperature of the water, measure the strength and direction of the current, and sample the water. It was first used in the Skagerrak between 30 and 200 meters depth in January 1904 and afterwards in the Baltic Sea.
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Figure 49. Thoulet bottle devised by Professor Julien Thoulet of the Universit y of Nancy. Nothing is known of the use of this bottle. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 50. Knudsen bottle (first model) for sampling water while a ship is underway. This bottle of very robust construction was devised by the Danish professor Martin Knudsen and used in the Kattegat in 1908 on board the C. F. GROVE and also in 1909 on board the THOR when samples were obtained in 250 meters depth in the North Sea between Aberdeen and Stavanger.
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Figure 51. Knudsen bottle for sampling water while a ship is underway. A newer revised model built after the model in Figure 50.
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Figure 52. Krummel and Ruppin bottle devised by Professor Otto Krummel in 1907 and modified by Ernst Ruppin in 1912. Panel A - 3-liter bottle descending. Panel B. 3-liter model ascending. Panel C. 1-liter bottle descending. Panel D. 1-liter bottle ascending. This type of bottle was used by the POSEIDON about 1912.
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Figure 53. Nansen inverting bottle devised by Fridtjof in1912 and taken by him aboard the ARMAUER HANSEN. Left: descending. Right: ascending. Note the messenger above the bottle in the ascending mode.
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Figure 54. Nansen inverting bottle showing detail of the reversing mechanism.
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Figure 54 (cont). Nansen inverting bottle showing detail of the cable attachment mechanism.
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Figure 55. Richard 1-liter bottle constructed in 1908 for the study of dissolve d gases in bottom water. This bottle was tested on the EIDER, a small vessel belonging to the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco.
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Figure 56. Insulated Knudsen bottle designed by the Dane Martin Knudsen in 1921 with the aid of Hans J. Neilsen. It was designed to ameliorate problems with the Pettersson and Nansen bottle. Left: ascending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 57. Insulated Knudsen bottle designed by the Dane Martin Knudsen in 1921 with the aid of Hans J. Neilsen. It was designed to ameliorate problems with the Pettersson and Nansen bottle. Left: ascending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 58. Insulated Knudsen bottle designed by the Dane Martin Knudsen in 1921 with the aid of Hans J. Neilsen. It was designed to ameliorate problems with the Pettersson and Nansen bottle. Left: ascending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 59. Insulated Knudsen bottle with frame. Martin Knudsen designed this apparatus about 1921 with the aid of Hans J. Nielsen. This bottle had a large aperture which facilitated the circulation of the water into the bottle. Note the messenger on the ascending mode image. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 60. Knudsen inverting bottle invented by Professor Martin Knudsen with the collaboration of Hans J. Nielsen in 1929. The construction was very simple and robust as the bottles were to be used in a series on a cable. The appearanc e and closing mechanism is very similar to the Nansen bottle but the robinettes are replaced by valves. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 61. Richard bottle (1940 model) devised by Dr. Jules Richard, Director of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, and constructed by Charles Calleri, at that time the museum's instrument maker. This bottle did not represent a step forward, but instead was an example of using material's at hand to construct a sampling device during the difficult days of WW II.
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Figure 62. A cross-bow bottle devised by Jean Comelli, instrument-maker of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco in 1953. This instrument was built for Jean Brouardel for studying oxygen content in sea-water. The bottle is plexiglass. Left: descending. Right: ascending. This instrument was used on the museum's small vessel the EIDER off Monace in depths of 150 to 500 meters.
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Figure 63. Van Dorn bottle created by Dr. William G. Van Dorn in 1956. It is questionable whether this should be considered a "modern" instrument given its materials of construction. However, on second thought, it is very similar to modern valve-closing bottles. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 64. N.I.O. bottle designed by Francis E. Pierce, Dennis I. Gaunt, and Richard Dobson at the National Institute of Oceanography at Grand-Bretagne. This utilized a valve for closing but also inverted. The mounting for the therm ometer toppled over by the action of a spring. This bottle was used by the DISC OVERY II in the Gulf of Gascogne at 4700 meters.
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Figure 65. 5-liter Comelli bottle created by Jean Comelli undoubtedly for water chemistry studies of Jean Brouardel. Left: descending. Right: ascending. Very little is known about the effectiveness of this instrument or where it was used.
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Figure 66. Momzikoff and Comelli double bottle. This bottle was built followin g the specifications of Andre Momzikoff for water chemistry studies, in particul ar trace elements. The prototype was constructed by Jean Comelli in 1966 and used in the waters close to Monaco in 1967. Many models of this type have since been constructed. Left:descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 67. Mecabolier bottle, a mass-produced inverting water sampling bottle. This instrument closes by means of a valve and is a modern form of the Knudsen type. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 68. BYB bottle. This type of bottle has a similar closing mechanism as the Van Dorn bottle. It was commercialized through the Nereides Society. Left: descending. Right: ascending.
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Figure 69. Buchanan sounding apparatus and water bottle. This instrument was devised by John Buchanan for the simultaneous collection of a bottom sediment sample and a water sample at the bottom. Schematic drawing from: Murray, J. and Reynard, A. F., 1891. Report on the scientific results of H. M. S. Challeng er... Deep-sea deposits, pp. 1-32. Figure 7.
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Figure 70. Buchanan sounding bottle. This instrument was devised after the Challenger Expedition. It was better than preceding instruments for collecting water samples in close proximity to the bottom. It was first tested aboard the PRINCESS ALICE in 1894 in the open Atlantic off Morocco in 2782 meters.
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Figure 71. Brouardel coring device. This instrument was designed to obtain a sample of the upper layers of sediment and the water directly above the bottom. It was designed by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet for studying the dissolved oxygen in the waters next to the bottom. It was constructed by Jean Comelli between 1952 and 1954 and tested aboard the EIDER.
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Figure 72. Brouardel surface sampler. This instrument was designed to obtain a sample of the top layers of sediment with the overlying water. A forerunner of this instrument was the surface mud sampler built for limnological studies by Bernard M. Jenkins of the Freshwater Biological Association. This instrument was built by Jean Comelli and tested in 1954 on the EIDER.
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Catalog of Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 5: "Sounding Instruments" by Christian Carpine. Bulletin de l'Institute Oceanographique, Vol. 75, No. 1441. 1996.
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Figure 1. A drilled roller (round boulder) used as a sounding weight. Figure 2 . Ordinary sounding lead weight, sometimes attaining many kilograms. The lead dates from the Christian era. The trapezoidal form with a recess for tallow and acquiring bottom samples dates from a few centuries back. In this form, millio ns of sounding were made. Fig. 3. French sounding lead used in many expeditions.
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Figure 4. A lead fish used for continuous sounding operations at slow speed. This device was invented in 1914 and improved by Pierre Marti in 1920.
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Figure 5. Stellwagen sampling sounder invented by Lieutenant Henry S. Stellwagen, USN, while on Coast Survey duty in 1842. This sampler was undoubted ly one of the first sounder-samplers of simple design that was used in a systematic manner for scientific purposes. It was invented in 1842.
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Figure 6. Brooke sounder, invented by Midshipman John M. Brooke, USN, at the instigation of Matthew Fontaine Maury of the United States Naval Observatory in 1852. This was the first sounding device to abandon its lead at the bottom and return with a sample. Initially, it was built with two hooks for release and malfunctioned but was rebuilt with a single hook and used successfully in 1853.

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