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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

18850 thumbnail picture
Figure 6 (cont.) Brooke sounding device in the descent position.
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Figure 7. Bonnici sounder, invented by Carmelo Bonnici, a blacksmith on HMS SPITFIRE. This device was used in surveys in the Black Sea in 1855. Left: descending. Right: Schematic drawing of the apparatus after striking the bottom.
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Figure 8. Skead sounder invented by Francis Skead during telegraph survey operations between Malta and Crete off HMS TARTARUS in 1857. This device was designed to mitigate problems with the Brooke and Bonnici sounders. The first would sink in soft sediment without detaching the weight while the second rarely returned samples.
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Figure 9. Sands sounder invented by Commander Benjamin F. Sands, USN, while on duty with the U. S. Coast Survey in 1857. Compression of the spring actuated levers, which separated the symmetric halves of the weight which then fell to the bottom. A valve was actuated creating a void which allowed sediment to enter the tube. Pulling up the line reset the valve capturing the bottom sample
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Figure 10. Bulldog sounder, invented by Marine Engineer Roughton, assistant engineer Steil, and naturalist George C. Wallich for use in deep water sounding operations by HMS BULLDOG in the North Sea and North Atlantic Ocean in 1860 while under command of Sir Leopold McClintock RN. This device was also used on HMS PORCUPINE in water depths up to 3200 meters in 1862.
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Figure 11. Lightning sounder, designed in 1866 by Lieutenant Charles C. P. Fitz gerald, RN. This model was used on the LIGHTNING during the Faroe Islands expedition of 1868. It was used for systematic sounding operations in depths up to 1189 meters and according to Charles Wyville Thomson, a mission participant, it never failed despite its primitive and unlikely appearance.
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Figure 12. Hydra sounder, made by Mr. Gibbs and colleagues on the HMS HYDRA during the 1868 Indian Ocean expedition commanded by Captain Peter F. Shortland. Some of the first deep soundings in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans were made with this instrument rigged for use with a Hodge accumulator. Among the important soundings was one of over 3400 meters at 31.05 S Lat and 12.25E Long.
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Figure 13. Bouquet de la Grye sounder, invented by the French hydrographic engineer Anatole Bouquet de la Grye in 1869. The main point about this device was a new type of weight release mechanism, based on the action of spring released at the moment that the weight contacted the bottom. This method was used extensively on cable survey ships.
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Figure 14. Baillie sounder, a version of the Hydra sounder, was designed in 1871 by Lieutenant Charles W. Baillie, RN, when he was on the North American station. This instrument was almost immediately adopted by the British Hydrogra phic Office. Two of these instruments were placed on the CHALLENGER in 1873 and used successfully.
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Figure 15. Wille sounder, first described by Captain Carl Fredrik Wille of the Norwegian naval vessel VORINGEN in 1876.
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Figure 16. Combination water sampling bottle and sounder designed by John Y. Buchanan after his return from the Challenger expedition in 1877. This instrument worked better than preceding models for water sampling and was used regularly by Prince Albert I of Monaco. The first tests took place on board the PRINCESS ALICE in 1894 off Morocco in 2782 meters water depth.
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Figure 17. Belknap and Sigsbee sounding device, designed by George Belknap on board the TUSCARORA in 1873-1874. This instrument, which was a modification of the Brooke sounder, was subsequently improved by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN, while in command of the Coast Survey Steamer BLAKE in 1878.
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Figure 18. Hopfgartner sounding device, invented by the Austrian Lieutenant France von Hopfgartner. No information has been found regarding tests and subsequent use of this instrument.
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Figure 19. Hirondelle locking sounder. Prince Albert I of Monaco designed this apparatus in 1888. His idea was to modify a Baillie or Travailleur sounder by replacing the various valves with a spigot which closed after sediment entered the tube. The engineer Jules le Blanc built this instrument for Prince Albert. It was used sucessfully in 1888 off the Azores in depths of 600 to 2000 meters.
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Figure 19 (cont.) Hirondelle locking sounder in the opened wide position.
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Figure 20. Lucas scoop sounder, invented in 1891 by Francis Lucas of the English Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, this instrument was also called the "snapper." It was used primarily by ships engaged in submarine cable laying. It is a derivative of the Ross device, with elements of the British bulldog sounder.
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Figure 21. Silvertown Company sounder, a device very similar to the Belknap- Sigsbee sounder with one important difference. This sounder had a unique ballast release method which involved a knife cutting the line holding the ballast upon beginning of ascent. This device was used in cable laying surveys.
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Figure 22. Driver depth sounding device. This sounder was used by the British Admiralty and was very simple to maintain and use. Little is known of its history; it is first listed in a catalog of instruments in 1896.
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Figure 23. Cable ship stopcock sounder. This instrument is saved in the Oceanographic Museum under this name. Its invention is attributed to Rendle in certain articles without precisely being able to know its history.
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Figure 24. Cable ship four-tube sounder. This device operates in a manner similar to the previous model, and there are no further details concerning its design or implementation.
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Figure 25. Bachmann penetration tubes. These instruments are not properly sounders, but an accessory for use with the instruments of the time. The bacteriologist Martin Bachman designed these tubes in order to elongate the real sounder tube and penetrate more deeply into the sediment. These tubes achieved deep penetration but little sample material. First used on VALDIVIA in 1898.
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Figure 26. The Leger dredge sounder in the descending position. This sampling device was designed to retain a portion of the captured sample even if a rock held the jaws open after being activated to snap shut. This sounder was tested twenty-two times in 1903 on the PRINCESS ALICE II between depths of 18 and 4560 meters.
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Figure 26 (cont.) The Leger dredge sounder after sampling and in the ascent mode. Note that the weights were retained on the instrument and not jettisoned on the seafloor.
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Figure 27. Ekman sounder, designed by Vagn W. Ekman in 1905. This instrument is similar to one designed by his father Fredrik L. Ekman in 1893 and to Magnaghi's sounder, described in 1891.
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Figure 28. Pasquion sounder invented by the Frenchman August Pasquion. This device was never featured in a publication; however, it was patented on June 26, 1906, by the National Office of Industrial Property. Its first ocean tests took place in 1905 and it was used by the French cable survey ships for at least the next fifteen years.
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Figure 29. Gilson sounder, described in 1906 by Gustave Gilson of the University of Louvain. He described a perfected scoop sounder which was similar to the Stellwagen sounder but contained a number of improvements for assuring a larger quantity of sediment obtained than with the earlier instrument. It was first tested in 1899 near Ostende off the coast of Belgium.
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Figure 29 (cont.) Gilson sounder with detail of the cover plate.
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Figure 30. Aime dredges -- small model on left, large model on right. These dredges were designed by Georges Aime, Professor of Physics at the College of Alger, in 1840 for the study of small quantities of sediment. They were not used as part of a depth-measuring system.
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Figure 31. Thoulet round dredge, designed by Julien Thoulet, professor at the University of Nancy, about 1897. Although tested aboard the Princess Alice in about 1901, it was not until 1909 that Thoulet tested his dredge in small lakes. That same year they were used in the Gulf of Gascogne on the PRINCESS ALICE II in depths up to 4600 meters.
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Figure 32 (left). Phleger corer devised by Fred B. Phleger of Scripps about 1951 for the study of the Foraminifera in deep water bottom samples. Phleger , previously of Amherst and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, used a similar device on the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition. The instrument on the right is attributed to Kullenberg (Figure 34).
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Figure 34. Brouardel corer invented by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet for measuring dissolved oxygen in ocean water at the seafloor. This instrument was devised and constructed by Jean Comelli at the instrument shop of the Oceanograp hic Museum at Monaco. It was tested on the EIDER off Monaco in 1953, at depths between 150 and 580 meters for the first model.
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Figure 35. Brouardel surface sampler, improvement of previous instrument, was designed by Jean Brouardel and Jean Vernet and constructed by Jean Comelli. This instrument was inspired by Bernard M. Jenkins' Surface Mud Sampler, created for the limnological studies of Clifford H. Mortimer. It was used to sample bottom water and sediment simultaneously. It was first tested off the EIDER in 1954.
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Figure 36. Ericsson pneumatic sounder, invented in 1835 by John Ericsson of USS MONITOR fame. This was among the first instruments to use the principle of pressure needed to compress air a given amount to derive the depth of water.
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Figure 37. Bucknill-Casella manometric sounder, invented by Lieutenant John T. Bucknill of the Royal Engineers of the Royal Navy in 1870 to mitigate problems with existing sounding systems. This sounder was based on Bourdon's tube, whose curvature varied as a function of the pressure difference between the interior and the fluid in which it was immersed. Louis P. Casella made the final product.
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Figure 38. Stahlberger rheobathometer, invented in 1873 by Emil Stahlberger to measure currents, measure depth, and collect deep water samples. It was first used on board the Austrian corvette MINERVA in 1873 in the Gulf of Fiume. The original device was made by Mathias Skull of Fiume, Austria. Several versions of this instrument were tested at various depths.
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Figure 39. Massey sounder, a propeller driven sounding device first developed in 1802 by Edward Massey. Many improvements were made to this device through the Nineteenth Century. The instrument in the image was created by Thomas Walke r in 1874. It consists of a propeller driven registering device which is fixed to a sounding line and weighted by ballast.
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Figure 40. Fol bathometer, designed by Hermann Fol who was a collaborator with Prince Albert I of Monaco. This instrument used the same principle as the Erics son sounder. Fol replaced water with mercury in order to determine the depth attained as a function of the quantity of liquid displaced by the pressure. Details concerning tests and effectiveness of this device are unknown.
18887 thumbnail picture
Figure 41. Thomson pneumatic sounder, devised by Sir William Thomson, was an extremely simple device designed for use with his sounding machine on a steel line. Although based on the action of pressure on gas or liquids, it also used the original concept of using a chemical means to note the depth attained.
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Figure 42. Hopfgartner and Arzberger sounder, devised by Lieutenant Franz von Hopfgartner of the Austrian Merchant Marine and Moriz Arzberger, a civil enginee r, this apparatus used the same principle as aneroid barometers which utilized the pressure difference between a wall, isolated or not, and the exterior medium . It was tested in 1876 in the Gulf of Trieste in depths up to 17 meters.
18889 thumbnail picture
Figure 43. Bergius pneumatic sounder. No documentation could be found for the design, construction, or testing of this instrument. It is probable that this instrument was created in the early Twentieth Century by Friedrich Bergius, a 1931 Nobel Prize winner, for study of high pressure chemical reactions.
18890 thumbnail picture
Figure 44. Bamberg pneumatic bathometer, constructed by Carl Bamberg. This instrument is in fact an accessory to a Bamberg sounder, which was similar to the Thomson sounder. It used the pressure of water to push a certain quantity of water into a tube and subsequently measuring it in order to determine the depth that the tube had attained.
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Figure 45. Rung bathometer, designed by Captain George Rung of the Danish Meteorological Institute. It was a new type of pneumatic sounding device based on the principle advanced by the physician Kristian Prytz, also a Dane. It was considered an advancement on the Thompson tube. Depending on modifications, it could be used from 0 to 200 meters, or from two to three times deeper.
18892 thumbnail picture
Figure 45 (cont.) Detail of mechanism of Rung bathometer.
18893 thumbnail picture
Figure 46. Shaeffer and Budenberg recording manometer, designed and built by the firm of Schaeffer and Budenberg. This was based on an instrument designed for use by a German expedition to Antarctica. This device was able to work to 1200 meters and was first tested by Doctor Brennecke on the German ship PLANET in the Indian Ocean in 1906.
18894 thumbnail picture
Figure 46 (cont.) Shaeffer and Budenberg recording manometer, mechanism above, recording graph below. The instrument is within an enclosed case which is acted upon by water pressure. An amplification mechanism transmits the displacement to a pen which records the corresponding depth on a gridded sheet.
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Figure 47. Sigsbee sounding machine, designed by Lieutenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN. Sigsbee's sounding machine was constructed on the basis of the Thomson wireline sounding machine. The Sigsbee apparatus represents the first real industrial construction of such a device. It was the prototype for the majority of wireline machines subsequently invented and used.
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Figure 47 (cont.) Sigsbee sounding machine, designed by Lietenant Charles D. Sigsbee, USN. Sigsbee designed this machine while in command of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Ship BLAKE while operating in the Gulf of Mexico in 1874 and first used on the BLAKE in 1875.
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Figure 48. Lucas sounding machine, invented by Francis Lucas. Lucas began his career laying submarine cable in 1856. He subsequently became chief engineer at the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. He invented this lightweig t wire-sounding machine in 1878 and first used on the ALERT the same year. This type of machine was used by British hydrographic ships after 1887.
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Figure 49. Bamberg sounding machine, devised by Carl Bamberg as a modification of the Thomson piano-wire sounding machine. Thomson placed his model on the CHALLENGER but it was never successfully used there. It was the American vessel s TUSCARORA and BLAKE that ultimately proved the usefulness of wireline sounding .
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Figure 49 (cont.) Bamberg sounding machine, detail of accessory cupboard.

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