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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

18900 thumbnail picture
Figure 49 (end). Bamberg sounding machine with accessory cupboard.
18901 thumbnail picture
Figure 50. Belloc sounding machine, invented by Emile Belloc. This machine was designed for raising water bottles and thermometers for studying the lakes of Pyrenee Mountains. It was subsequently used in a more robust form by Andre Delebecque on Lake Leman in 1891 and by Prince Albert I of Monaco off his ship in 1894.
18902 thumbnail picture
Figure 51. HIRONDELLE II sounding machine used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. This machine represented the evolution of a number of sounding machines used by Prince Albert I since first having a wireline machine installed on the HIRONDEL LE. The first machine was wound back in by hand, but subsequent models had stea m engines for winding in. The engineer Jules Le Blanc built these machines.
18903 thumbnail picture
Figure 51 (cont.) The HIRONDELLE II sounding machine used by Prince Albert I of Monaco. During the evolution of this machine, two important changes were made on the PRINCESS ALICE II which were used on this machine. The power was provide d by an electric motor, and the cable passed first through a winch before being wound on the reel. This machine kept the winch but returned to steam power.
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Figure 52. Thoulet sounder devised by Professor Julien Thoulet of the University of Nancy in 1908. This was a modification of the Belloc sounder that Professor Thoulet wished to make more portable and to have a lower cost. No information is available concerning the test and use of this machine.
18905 thumbnail picture
Figure 53. Berget sounding machine, designed by Professor Alphonse Berget of the Oceanographic Institute of Paris. Prince Albert I of Monaco presented this type of machine to the French Academy of Sciences in 1911. The machine was designed for use in depths from 0 to 2500 meters. This machine was unique for its compact size and strength.
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Figure 54. Aime's sounder release device, devised by Professor Georges Aime, professor of Physics, at the College of Alger. In 1841 Aime tested this device in the Mediterranean in the vicinity of Alger. It could be used for water sampling as well as sounding and was better known for the former use.
18907 thumbnail picture
Figure 55. Burt's nipper, invented by Peter Burt, a British ship builder, in 1818. It was used to keep the sounding line vertical in spite of the motion of the ship. It was used by the British Admiralty along with a device of the same type designed by Massey.
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Figure 56. Pecoul logging sounder, invented in 1849 by Master Mariner Adolphe Pecoul of Marseille. This device was used to measure measure depths while a vessel was underway or to be used as a speed logging device. It was tested in 1850. In spite of favorable reports from numerous ship captain, it was rejected by the Ministry of the Marine and Colonies.
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Figure 57. Puhler sounder, described by Christian Puhler in 1563, repeated an idea first put forth by Cardinal Nicholas Pusanus a century earlier. The principle, was to attach a float to a weight making it heavier than water. Upon striking bottom, the float would detach. Depth would be derived from round- trip travel time. It is unknown if this device was ever field tested.
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Figure 58. Albert sounder. The idea of Cardinal Cusanus, mentioned in the previous figure, was re-examined by the Italian architect Leo Battista Alberti and subsequentlydescribed by Giuseppe Biancani in 1635. The design was even simpler than Puhler's device. A simple rule of three was devised to derive the depth from the travel time to the bottom and return of the float.
18911 thumbnail picture
Figure 59. Hooke sounder devised by Robert Hooke, curator of experiments of the British Royal Society, also took up Cardinal Cusanus's idea. Like the preceding similar devices, the depth measured was obtained by comparison with the time required for the float to ascend from a known depth. This instrument was designed in 1663 and tested in 5 to 6 meters water depth.
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Figure 60. Joe Soundings sounder. This device was described in nautical magazine in 1832 by an individual with the pen name "Joe Soundings." It used a counter incremented by a propeller to measure the distance to the bottom. It is similar to the Massey sounder and Massey is sometimes cited as the inventor. There is no information concerning testing or use of this instrument.
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Figure 61. Electrosounder, used by the Italian Navy in 1954, employed a small explosive device which exploded on impact with the bottom and the sound subsequently was heard at a hydrophone on a ship. The use of explosives for depth finding was first suggested by a French engineer, Urbain Dortet de Tessan about 1850.
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Figure 62. Leger bathometer designed by the engineer Maurice Leger working in collaboration with Prince Albert I of Monaco. It was designed to measure small variations in the force of gravity and relate them to the depth of water.
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Figure 63. Marti's continuous recording sounder built by the French engineer Pierre Marti. In 1919, Marti began designing and describing sounding machines based on acoustic methods. This recording device allowed measuring time of sound emanation and time of reception, thus giving travel time which can be used to determine depth.
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Figure 63 (cont.) An example of a record from the Marti continuous recording sounder.
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Figure 64. Langevin Florisson echoscope built through collaboration of Professor Paul Langevin and Charles Florisson. This instrument was put into service in 1933 and used to measure shallow depths from small boats.
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Figure 64 (cont.) Projector unit for Langevin Florisson echoscope.
18919 thumbnail picture
Figure 65. Marconi electrolytic sounder - a Langevin-Touly electric recording sounder marketed by the Marconi Sounding Device Co. Ltd. which sold these instruments in Great Britain. The Langevin-Touly instrument was first marketed in 1935.
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Figure 66. Marconi echometer - a Langevin-Chilowsky echometer system presented at the Fourth Hydrographic Conference in Monaco under the name "Special Model for Hydrographic Studies and Shallow Water Soundings, Langevin-Chilowsky system. " This sounding system first became available in 1937.
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Figure 67. British Admiralty echo sounder, model MS X. In the 1930's the British Admiralty designed a magnetostrictive ultrasonic sounding device which subsequently led to the manufacture of magnetostrictive sounding systems by Hughes and Son Ltd.
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Figure 68. Magnetostrictive sounder model MS XII of the British Admiralty constructed by Hughes and Son Ltd. in 1937.
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Figure 69. Langevin quartz ultrasonic projector. This device was built in 1925 by the Society for Condensation and Mechanical Applications based on work by Paul Langevin. It was also distributed by the Marconi Company. It consisted of a piezo-electric emitter. No informatin exists concerning tests and use of this instrument.
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Catalog of the Oceanographic Equipment in the Collection of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. 6. "Thermometers" by Christian Carpine. Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography. Volume 76, 1997, No. 1442.
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Figure 1. Cavendish thermometer. Beginning in 1757 Lord Charles Cavendish, vice-president of the Royal Society, invented and described a number of thermome ters utilizing the principle of the dilatation of liquid. One of these was a " minimum" thermometer used to retain the minimum temperature observed. The liquid used was alcohol. It was first used by John Phipps on the RACEHORSE in 1773.
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Figure 2. Six's thermometer devised by James Six in 1782. Six devised maximum and minimum reading thermometers and in a posthumous publication (1794) suggeste d the adaptation of the maximum/minimum reading thermometers for use in the deep sea.
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Figure 3. Six's thermometer, 1782 model. A little different from the example in image ship 4282. These, like the previous example, were actually constructed in 1912 by Negretti and Zambra for displaying to the public at the Oceanographi c Museum.
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Figure 4. Aime' recording thermometer devised by the Frenchman George Aime' at the College of Algeria in 1845. This thermometer was an improvement over the Six's maximum and minimum thermometers and was designed for deployment in the deepest depths of the Mediterranean. He added two reservoirs for the mercury on the bottom to facilitate the mercury staying over the index.
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Figure 5. Aime' minimum temperature recording thermometer presented to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1844 and described by Aime' in 1845. This instrument differed little from the preceding but at a small point where the fluid enters into the reservoir. This is a reproduction by Negretti and Zambra in 1913.
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Figure 6. Aime' maximum temperature recording thermometer. This thermometer was constructed in 1913 as a facscimile of the earlier thermometer by Negretti and Zambra.
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Figure 7. Aime' minimum temperature recording thermometer. This thermometer was designed to be made to turn over at the desired depth and retain the minimal temperature reading at that depth while returning to the surface. Aime' is the originator of the concept of the reversing thermometer.
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Figure 8. Aime' maximum temperature recording thermometer. He described this instrument in 1845 and it operated in a similar manner to the minimum thermomete r.
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Figure 9. Walferdin maximum temperature thermometer a form of reversing thermom ter designed by Francois Walferdin, a French customs official who was responsibl e for in 1855.
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Figure 10. Protected Six thermometer constructed by Negretti and Zambra in 1857 . This type of thermometer protected the reservoir of mercury against the effec ts of pressure by having a second glass envelope which inhibited the heating effect of the pressure.
18935 thumbnail picture
Figure 10 (cont). Protected Six thermometer constructed by Negretti and Zambra in 1857 on its ebonite support.
18936 thumbnail picture
Figure 11. Six's thermometer, Miller and Casella, 1869 model. This thermometer was made at the request of Doctor William Miller, vice-presiden t of the Royal Society, and produced by the firm of Louis Casella. This thermometer was designed to resist the effects of pressure. This instrument was first used in May 1869.
18937 thumbnail picture
Figure 11 (cont). Six's thermometer, Miller and Casella, 1869 model. The thermometer is mounted on an ebonite support.
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Plate I. Modern reversing thermometers for use in the deep sea. I: Negretti and Zambra. II: F. C.Jacob. IIIa: V. Chabaud. IV: C. Richter.
18939 thumbnail picture
Figure 12. Negretti and Zambra thermometer, 1874 model. Although the principle of reversing was first described by George Aime' in 1845, this was the first thermometer to accurately determine the temperature at great depth and return to the surface and retain its readings. As such, it is considered the first modern reversing thermometer. It was used on the CHALLENGER expedition.
18940 thumbnail picture
Figure 13. Negretti and Zambra thermometer, 1878 model. This instrument is the direct ancestor of most reversing thermometers used up to this time. This was the first instrument to break the column of mercury after reversing to obtain the reading. It was entirely enclosed in a double envelope of glass to eliminate pressure effects.
18941 thumbnail picture
Figure 14. Negretti and Zambra thermometers, older models. These were reversing thermometers completely protected by an outer glass casing. This type of thermometer was manufactured from 1878 until 1912. The scales were graduate d in degrees and half-degree centigrade. Length of these thermometers was about 24 cm, diameter of reservoir about 1.1 cm, and diameter of tube about 1.3 cm.
18942 thumbnail picture
Figure 14 (cont). Negretti and Zambra thermometers, older models. These were reversing thermometers completely protected by an outer glass casing. This type of thermometer was manufactured from 1878 until 1912. The scales were graduated in degrees and half-degree centigrade. Temperature range of: 99 0034, -26 to 34C; 99 0044, -13 to 35C; 99 0047, -18 to 33C; 99 0052, -7 to 33C.
18943 thumbnail picture
Figure 15. Negretti and Zambra thermometers, 1912 models. In 1912 a new model of reversing thermometer was introduced which had a number of improvements that increased the sensitivity and accuracy of measurements including a scale that was graduated in 0.2C increments. These instruments had a smaller temperature range than the older instruments at the low end only reading to -2 to -3C.
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Figure 16. Certificate of examination certifying that the instruments had been tested at 3 tons pressure and the indicated corrections to readings thashould be used. These instruments were designed for use in polar areas and had temperature scales ranging from about -8C to 16C.
18945 thumbnail picture
Figure 17. Negretti and Zambra thermometers, 1926 models. These instruments are very similar to thermometers produced by Richter and Wiese in 1925 for the German METEOR expedition. Whether developed independently or copied, they are the same in all details.
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Figure 18. Protected Chabaud thermometers constructed by Victor Chabaud in 1892. Three left-most: mercury thermometers. Right: with copper powder.
18947 thumbnail picture
Figure 18 (cont). Certificate from the Central meteorological bureau with notes concerning the designated thermometers.
18948 thumbnail picture
Figure 18 (end). Chabaud thermometers. These thermometers were constructed by Victor Chabaud. The three left-most thermometers are in their protective glass envelopes while the two right-most are shown with the protective tube removed.
18949 thumbnail picture
Figure 19. Hemot thermometer constructed by Alphonse Hemot. Hemot was an instrument maker who made barometers but probably at the request of Prince Albert I of Monaco, he constructed reversing thermometers based on the Chabaud models. It is certain that these thermometers were used on board the PRINCESSE- ALICE II by 1902.

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