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Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect
Catalog of Images

19100 thumbnail picture
Figure 3. Brouardel's luxmeter. This instrument was constructed in 1956 at the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco by Jean Brouardel and Emile Rinck for their studies on the primary production in the Mediterranean Sea according to the methods of Steeman Nielsen. It was especially designed for photoelectric measurements in deep ocean water.
19101 thumbnail picture
Figure 4. Li-Cor photometer. This photometer was investigated by Dr. Jean Brouardel in 1974 in a quest for instruments of greater precision. He investigated several including a Li-Cor quantum/radiometer/photometer developed by industry especially for measuring light in water or in air in relation to photosynthesis. Construction date and details of study conditions are unknown.
19102 thumbnail picture
Figure 5. Compact luxmeter, used for study of light in air. Simplicity of design and use have joined with greater and greater precision of measurement in this mass-produced industry instrument. Although apparently an instrument used in meteorology, it is shown here because of the relationship between solar radiation and photo synthesis.
19103 thumbnail picture
Figure 6. Pyranometer, a sensor used to measure variations in solar radiation. It is used with a recording device, the solarigraph. The principle of operation of the pyranometer is that of the thermophile of the Dutch Willem Moll. This principle was adapted by Dr. Ladislaw Gorczynski of the Meteorological Institute of Varsovia in 1924. The instrument shown was probably made in the 1940's.
19104 thumbnail picture
Figure 7. Photometer recorder - most recording devices of this type are designed to be compatible with the area under which observations of radiation are made. Thus, this recorder, which recorded in units of millivolts, was designed for use with the pyranometer in the preceding image.
19105 thumbnail picture
Figure 8. Integrating solarimeter - measures energy developed from solar radiation based on the absorption of heat by a black body. The principle this instrument was designed on was first developed by the Italian priest, Father Angelo Bellani. He invented the actinometric method which is based on physical and chemical techniques.
19106 thumbnail picture
Plate I. Bifilar current meter designed by Otto Pettersson and described in 1905.
19107 thumbnail picture
Figure 9. Winch system for use with the Pettersson bifilar current measuring device. It is a hand-crank winch designed for use in less than 100-meters water depth. Prince Albert I of Monaco personally used such a winch for observations on Gorringe Bank in 1904.
19108 thumbnail picture
Figure 10. Dahl-Fjeldstad current meter - designed by assistant professor Jonas Ekman Fjeldstad of the University of Bergen in collaboration with the Norwegian engineer Odd Dahl. It automatically punched its readings on a tin strip for later reading and analysis. This system was completed in 1937.
19109 thumbnail picture
Figure 11. Lyth river current meter- this instrument is identical to that built by Ambler-Lafond. It functions according to the turnstile principle of Reinhard Woltman which dates from the end of the 19th Century.
19110 thumbnail picture
Figure 12. Quadrangular dredge - the origin of this instrument is unclear although it is similar to those used on the ALBATROSS at the end of the Nineteenth Century, the TRAVAILLEUR in 1880, and by Raffaele Issel in 1918.
19111 thumbnail picture
Figure 13. A clamshell type grab sampler - this device was meant to grab material from the upper layers of seafloor sediment for study of the embedded fauna.
19112 thumbnail picture
Plate 2. An early water sample bottle meant to preserve ocean water samples for further study of dissolved oxygen in the water.
19113 thumbnail picture
Figure 14. A Hydro Products water sampling bottle. This type of water sampling bottle was first designed by Dr. William B. Van Dorn of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1956.
19114 thumbnail picture
Figure 15. Support frame for four water sampling bottles. This instrument accessory was found in the middle of pieces of scrap iron. It was made in the museum workshop as shown in the accompanying photo by Jean Comelli and Jean Cros who worked on prototypes fabricated at the Museum's workshop. It appears to be a forerunner of the modern rosette sample frame.
19115 thumbnail picture
Figure 16. Cases of bottles for preserving water for salinity measurements. The bottles were placed in crates partitioned to protect against shock. The flasks were sealed to prevent evaporation and contamination. Flasks were closed by ground glass stoppers, but the bottles were closed with rubber rings and and metal levers for ease of sealing and opening.
19116 thumbnail picture
Figure 17. Bottles for preserving water samples for the study of dissolved oxygen. Methods used for preserving water for oxygen samples differed significantly from those used for preserving salinity samples.
19117 thumbnail picture
Figure 18. Crates of bottles for water samples designated to study dissolved oxygen. The upper crate contains 15 bottles while the lower crate contains 24. Such crates have been used to store bottles with ground glass stoppers for dissolved oxygen samples since the beginning of the Twentieth Century.
19118 thumbnail picture
Plate 3. Title page of the guide to German instruments at the International Oceanographic and Marine Fisheries Exposition of 1906. A description of Apstein's mud sampling tube was found in this document.
19119 thumbnail picture
Figure 19. Apstein's mud sampler - an instrument described in the catalog of the German Section of the International Oceanographic and Marine Fisheries Exposition of 1906 as a sediment sampler although it appears to be more likely that it was meant to be a water sampler used in the study of plankton by Dr. Carl Apstein.
19120 thumbnail picture
Plate 4. An integrated model of the dredging devices and gear used aboard the PRINCESSE ALICE II. This model was displayed in the oceanographic and physical instruments display room of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco about 1910.
19121 thumbnail picture
Figure 20. A model devised to demonstrate the quantity of common salt in the sea. The idea is that if all the salt in the sea were to evaporate it would cover an area and volume equal to the above sea-level area and volume of Africa. Dr. Walter Stahlberg conceived this idea as a means to communicate to the public amount of salt in the sea.
19122 thumbnail picture
Figure 21. A map of salinity of the surface of the ocean. This map was created by Dr. Walter Stahlberg and mounted and displayed by Max Marx in the windows of the Oceanographic Museum.
19123 thumbnail picture
Figure 22. Chemical elements that are dissolved in sea water. Major elements are sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, silicon, carbon, sulfur, oxygen, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Minor elements are titanium, nitrogen, phosphorus , arsenic, boron, rubidium, cesium, lithium, strontium, barium, zinc, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, lead, manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel.
19124 thumbnail picture
Figure 23. Display demonstrating the amount of dissolved gased in sea water. Each glass cube is 1 decimeter cubed in volume. The glass bulbs represent the amount of dissolved quantities of O2, N, and CO2 in the first two at low temperature and high temperature respectively, while the third cube represents the total amount of CO2, both dissolved and in other chemical compounds.
19125 thumbnail picture
Figure 24. Quantity of arsenic in marine plants as noted by the French pharmacist and chemist Henri Marcelet as the result of studies at the Oceanographic Museum in 1912.
19126 thumbnail picture
Figure 25. Samples of different types of marine sediments. This display was conceived by Professor Julien Thoulet in 1905 to both educate the public but also as guide for sailors who used bottom samples as a guide in piloting.
19127 thumbnail picture
Figure 26. Effects of pressure on different types of hollow tubes as studied by John Young Buchanan, both during his experiences on the CHALLENGER expedition and with Prince Albert I of Monaco on the PRINCESS ALICE II in 1902. Buchanan published his study of hyperpressure effects in 1903. The brass tube, copper sphere, and debris from a Portier and Richard bottle were all studied in 1902.
19128 thumbnail picture
Figure 27. Model of an Ekman Current Meter. This type of current meter was invented by V. Wilfred Ekman in about 1903. It had a novel method of recording current speed and direction. In effect small marbles were distributed by a drainpipe on the magnetized pointer for recording direction while the number of marbles was proportional to the strength of current.
19129 thumbnail picture
Figure 28. Model of a machine for generating electricity based on differences of temperature between the sea surface and great depth. This "thermal machine" was devised by the physicist Georges Claude and the engineer Paul Boucherot in 1926. It was an application of Carnot's theorem and was a forerunner of the modern ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) project.
19130 thumbnail picture
Figure 29. Model of the dynanometer with enclosed springs used on the HIRONDELLE . On the left is the assmbled model while on the right is the tension scale showing the tension placed on an oceanographic cable during operations.
19131 thumbnail picture
Figure 30. Samples of steel cable used by Prince Albert I of Monaco during his oceanographic studies. Various diameter cables were used with different types equipment at varying depths.
19132 thumbnail picture
Figure 31. A model of the deck gear, pullies, and booms used for dredging on the PRINCESSE ALICE II.
19133 thumbnail picture
Figure 32. Meteorological kite flown from the PRINCESS ALICE II. Professor Hugo Hergesell of Strasbourg interested Prince Albert in exploring the high atmosphere. As such, the first studies of the upper atmosphere while at sea were conducted off the PRINCESS ALICE II on April 12, 1904, to an altitude of 4500 meters.
Atlantic Ocean 43 35.8 N Lat., 7.75 W Long. 1904 April 12
19134 thumbnail picture
Figure 33. Meteorological register used with hydrogen weather balloons flown from the PRINCESSE ALICE II on April 5, 1905 from a station north of Corsica. The balloons and register attained a height of 8000 meters before the balloons burst and the instruments were parachuted to the sea for recovery and reading. Readings from two temperature sensors and a pressure sensor were recorded.
North of Corsica, Mediterranean Sea 1905 4 April
19135 thumbnail picture
Figure 34. Anemometer and dial - an anemometer of this type was shown in the catalog of the firm of Richard Brothers in 1886.
19136 thumbnail picture
Figure 35. A wind direction recording instrument offered by the firm of J. Richard in 1901.
19137 thumbnail picture
Figure 36. A modern wind direction indicator or weathervane that would transmit wind direction to a recording device. The use and history of this instrument is impossible to determine.
19138 thumbnail picture
Figure 37. Assman aspirating psychrometer, used to determine relative humidity by comparing dry and humid air temperatures. The instrument was designed on principles discovered by the German Ernst Ferdinand August, the director of the Gymnasium of Berlin, in 1825. Professor Richard Assman of the Meteorological Institute of Berlin, built this instrument about 1886.
19139 thumbnail picture
Figure 38. Hygrometer register, built to record variations in relative humidity. The hygrometer is built on principles discovered by Horace Benedict Saussure in 1783 and uses the changes in length of human hair and animal hair with humidity to derive relative humidity. The exact age of this recording instrument is unknown.
19140 thumbnail picture
Figure 39. A rain gage - this model was sold by the firm of Jules Richard and appeared in his catalog in 1886.
19141 thumbnail picture
Figure 40. Aneroid barometer register for recording the pressure readings of an aneroid barometer. The aneroid barometer was invented by the French instrument -maker Lucien Vide in 1843. This register was constructed by the firm of Richard Brothers and described by Hippolyte Sebert in 1882 and appeared in the a notice put out by the firm in 1886.
19142 thumbnail picture
Figure 41. Aneroid barometer with register built by the firm of Richard Brothers. This model was meant for use on vessels. This particular instrument was used by Prince Albert I of Monaco on board the PRINCESS ALICE and PRINCESS ALICE II between 1892 and 1899.
19143 thumbnail picture
Figure 42. A thermometer register for recording observed temperatures. This instrument probably dates at least back to the late Nineteenth Century.
19144 thumbnail picture
Figure 43. Buchanan hypsometer - this instrument is meant to determine altitude by relating the temperature of the boiling point of water to altitude. As altitude increases, the boiling point decreases. The instrument shown uses a method developed by Regnault and was used by John Young Buchanan in 1899.
19145 thumbnail picture
Figure 44. Thermometers used for hypsometry (measurement of altitude). These instruments were graduated between 0 and 100 degrees Celsius. These thermometers were constructed by A Haak in Germany in 1902.
19146 thumbnail picture
Figure 45. Quartz spectrograph, meant to photographically meausure the spectrum of various materials under analysis. This instrument was constructed by the Paris firm of Jobin and Yvon in 1901. Several of these instruments were made by the engineer Amedee Jobin.
19147 thumbnail picture
Figure 46. Manometer register, meant to measure pressure. This device was constructed by the firm of J. Richard and meant for industrial applications such as recording the pressure in boilers, of hydraulic presses, etc. It was apparently constructed in the late 19th Century.
19148 thumbnail picture
Figure 47. Viscometer, used to measure the viscosity of a liquid. This instrument worked by measuring the force which opposed the rotation of a disk or a cylinder which was immersed in the liquid.
19149 thumbnail picture
Figure 48. Walker log, used to measure the speed of a ship under way. This instrument was towed behind a vessel and the number of turns of the rotor during a given interval was directly proportional to the speed of the vessel through the water. This instrument was apparently invented prior to 1882 and sold under the name "T. Walker's patent harpoon ship log."

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